File Name: chemistry for pharmacy students .zip
Note: The following degree plan applies to students entering the Professional Pharmacy Program Pharm.
Pharmacists , also known as chemists Commonwealth English or druggists North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English , are health professionals who focus on the safe and effective use of medications , as they have expertise in the composition , effects, metabolism , mechanism of action and proper usage of drugs. Using knowledge of the mechanism of action of drugs, the pharmacist understands how they should be used to achieve maximum benefit, minimal side effects and to avoid drug interactions.
This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians , and other health care providers. Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy , Master of Pharmacy , or Doctor of Pharmacy degree.
The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist also referred to as a retail pharmacist , first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist , or a hospital pharmacist , where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines. Depending on the legal scope of practice , pharmacists may contribute to prescribing also referred to as "pharmacist prescriber" and administering certain medications e.
Pharmacists may also practice in a variety of other settings, including industry, wholesaling, research, academia, formulary management, military, and government. Historically, the fundamental role of pharmacists as a healthcare practitioner was to check and distribute drugs to doctors for medication that had been prescribed to patients. In more modern times, pharmacists advise patients and health care providers on the selection, dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications, and act as a learned intermediary between a prescriber and a patient.
Pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients to ensure the safe and effective use of medication. Pharmacists may practice compounding ; however, many medicines are now produced by pharmaceutical companies in a standard dosage and drug delivery form.
In some jurisdictions, pharmacists have prescriptive authority to either independently prescribe under their own authority or in collaboration with a primary care physician through an agreed upon protocol called a collaborative practice agreement.
Increased numbers of drug therapies , aging but more knowledgeable and demanding populations, and deficiencies in other areas of the health care system seem to be driving increased demand for the clinical counseling skills of the pharmacist.
Pharmaceutical care has many benefits that may include but are not limited to: decreased medication errors ; increased patient compliance in medication regimen; better chronic disease state management, including hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors;  strong pharmacist—patient relationship; and decreased long-term costs of medical care. Pharmacists are often the first point-of-contact for patients with health inquiries.
Thus pharmacists have a significant role in assessing medication management in patients, and in referring patients to physicians. These roles may include, but are not limited to:. In many contexts, students must first complete pre-professional undergraduate coursework, followed by about four years of professional academic studies to obtain a degree in pharmacy such as Doctorate of Pharmacy.
In the European Union, pharmacists are required to hold a Masters of Pharmacy, which allows them to practice in any other E. Pharmacists are educated in pharmacology , pharmacognosy , chemistry , organic chemistry , biochemistry , pharmaceutical chemistry , microbiology , pharmacy practice including drug interactions , medicine monitoring, medication management , pharmaceutics , pharmacy law, pathophysiology, physiology , anatomy , pharmacokinetics , pharmacodynamics , drug delivery, pharmaceutical care, nephrology , hepatology , and compounding of medications.
Additional curriculum may cover diagnosis with emphasis on laboratory tests, disease state management, therapeutics and prescribing selecting the most appropriate medication for a given patient.
Upon graduation, pharmacists are licensed, either nationally or regionally, to dispense medication of various types in the areas they have trained for. Some may undergo further specialized training, such as in cardiology or oncology.
Specialties include: [ citation needed ]. There are currently no laws requiring pharmacists to be registered, but all pharmacies must have a license to conduct business.
Pharmacists are able to substitute for generic equivalents at point of dispensing. The Australian Pharmacy Council is the independent accreditation agency for Australian pharmacists. The Australian College of Pharmacy provides continuing education programs for pharmacists. Wages for pharmacists in Australia appear to have stagnated, and even gone backwards. Job security and increase in wages with regards to CPI could be unlikely.
Contract and casual work is becoming more common. A contract pharmacist is self-employed and often called a locum; these pharmacists may be hired for one shift or for a longer period of time. There are accounts of underemployment and unemployment emerging recently.
Wages being significantly higher in Canada than most developing countries, recruitment of pharmacists from South Africa and other countries with acute health workforce shortages to work in private franchise chains is subject to controversy.
A pharmacist must be registered with the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia to practice in this province. The University of British Columbia is the only institution in the province that trains pharmacists. The University of Alberta is the only institution in the province awarding pharmacy degrees, offering both Bachelor of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy programs.
Pharmacists must be registered with the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to practice in Alberta. The Ontario College of Pharmacists grants licenses to practice as a Pharmacist in the province of Ontario.
International graduates of pharmacy must successfully complete the Pharmacist Evaluating Exam and Pharmacist Qualifying Exam along with a Studentship and Internship to be registered as a Pharmacist in Ontario. Canadian graduates of the pharmacy programme can sit the qualifying exam directly without the evaluating exam. In Germany, the education and training is divided into three sections, each ending with a state examination:. After the third state examination a person must become licensed as an RPh "registered pharmacist" for a licence to practice pharmacy.
Today, many pharmacists work as employees in public pharmacies. They will be paid according to the labour agreement of Adexa and employer associations. In ancient Japan, the men who fulfilled roles similar to pharmacists were respected. Ranked positions in the pre- Heian Imperial court were established; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the Meiji Restoration In this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists — and even pharmacist assistants — were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists.
In the Imperial household, the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the Emperor. As of , 46 universities of pharmacy in Japan graduated about students annually. These practices have been linked to decreases in the average number of drugs in prescriptions, drug costs and incidence of adverse drug events. The degree awarded by most pharmacy schools is a Bachelor of Pharmacy Degree B.
However, in the near future, [ when? D Doctor of Pharmacy Degree. The University of Benin has started the Pharm. D programme with other pharmacy schools planning to start soon. The Pharmacy Degree in Nigeria is unclassified i. Pharmacy Graduates are required to undergo 1 year of Tutelage under the supervision of an already Registered Pharmacist a preceptor in a recognized and designated Institution before they can become Registered Pharmacists. The West African Post Graduate College of Pharmacy runs post-registration courses on advanced-level practice in various fields of pharmacy.
It is a college jointly funded by a number of Countries in the West Africa sub-region. There are thousands of Nigerian-trained pharmacists registered and practicing in countries such as the US, the UK, Canada etc.
In Pakistan , the Pharm. Doctor of Pharmacy degree is a graduate-level professional doctorate degree. Twenty-one universities are registered with the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan for imparting Pharmacy courses. Pharmacy Bachelor of Pharmacy Program to a 5-year Pharm. Doctor of Pharmacy program. All 21 universities have started the 5-year Pharm.
D Program. In the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan approved the awarding of a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, a five-year programme at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar. The Programme includes 6 months of pharmacy training. Not only pharmacists, but also pharmaceutical technicians are allowed to dispense prescription medicines, except for narcotics, psychotropics and very potent medicines.
Pharmacists approve prescriptions fulfilled by pharmaceutical technicians subsequently. Pharmaceutical technicians have to complete 2 years of post-secondary occupational school and 2 years of pharmacy training afterwards. Pharmacists are eligible to prescribe medicines in exceptional circumstances.
All Polish pharmacies are obliged to produce compound medicines. Most pharmacists in Poland are pharmacy managers and are responsible for pharmacy marketing in addition to traditional activities. To become a pharmacy manager in Poland, a pharmacist is expected to have at least 5 years of professional experience. All pharmacists in Poland have to maintain an adequate knowledge level by participating in various university- and industry-based courses and arrangements or by undergoing postgraduate specialization.
In Sweden , the national board of health and welfare regulates the practice of all legislated health care professionals, and is also responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. The education to become a licensed pharmacist is regulated by the European Union , and states that minimum educational requirements are five years of university studies in a pharmacy program, of which six months must be a pharmacy internship.
To be admitted to pharmacy studies, students must complete a minimum of three years of gymnasium, similar to high school school for about 15—year-old students program in natural science after elementary school 6—year-olds. In Sweden, pharmacists are called Apotekare. At pharmacies in Sweden, pharmacists work together with another class of legislated health care professionals called Receptarier , in English so-called prescriptionists , who have completed studies equal to a bachelor of science in pharmacy, i.
Prescriptionists also have dispensing rights in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland. The majority of the staff in a pharmacy are Apotekstekniker or "pharmacy technicians" with a three -semester education at a vocational college. In Switzerland, the federal office of public health regulates pharmacy practice. To major in pharmaceutical studies takes at least five years.
Students spend their last year as interns in a pharmacy combined with courses at the university, with focus on the validation of prescriptions and the manufacturing of pharmaceutical formulations. Since all public health professions are regulated by the government it is also necessary to acquire a federal diploma in order to work in a pharmacy. It is not unusual for pharmaceutical studies majors to work in other fields such as the pharmaceutical industry or in hospitals.
Pharmacists work alongside pharma assistants , an apprenticeship that takes three years to complete. Pharmacists can further specialise in various fields; this is organized by PharmaSuisse , the pharmacists' association of Switzerland. In Tanzania , pharmacy practice is regulated by the national Pharmacy Board, which is also responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country.
By international standards, the density of pharmacists is very low, with a mean of 0. The majority of pharmacists are found in urban areas, with some underserved regions having only 2 pharmacists per region. The salaries of pharmacists varied significantly depending on the place of work. Those who worked in the academia were the highest paid followed by those who worked in the multilateral non-governmental organizations. The public sector including public retail pharmacies and faith based organizations paid much less.
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