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Malik All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Not since the s has there been a systematic attempt to publish a series of national histories, and, as editors, we believe that this series will prove to be a valuable contribution to our understanding of other countries in our increasingly interdependent world.
Over thirty years ago, at the end of the s, the Cold War was an ac- cepted reality of global politics, the process of decolonization was still in progress, the idea of a unified Europe with a single currency was unheard of, the United States was mired in a war in Vietnam, and the economic boom of Asia was still years in the future.
Clearly, the past 30 years have been witness to a great deal of historical change, and it is to this change that this series is primarily addressed. These authors have worked most cooperatively with us and with Greenwood Press to produce volumes that reflect current research on their nations and that are interesting and informative to their prospective readers.
The importance of a series such as this cannot be underestimated. Yet many Americans know very little about the histories of the nations with which the United States relates. How did they get to be the way they are? What kind of political systems have evolved there? What kind of influence do they have in their own region?
What are the dominant political, religious, and cultural forces that move their leaders? These and many other questions are answered in the volumes of this series. The authors who have contributed to this series have written comprehensive histories of their nations, dating back to prehistoric times in some cases. Each of them, however, has devoted a significant portion of the book to events of the last thirty years, because the modern era has contributed the most to contemporary issues that have an impact on U.
Authors have made an effort to be as up-to-date as possible so that readers can benefit from the most recent scholarship and a narrative that includes very recent events. This is designed to give readers a picture of the nation as it exists in the contemporary world. Each volume also contains additional chapters that add interesting and useful detail to the his- torical narrative. Each volume also contains a comprehensive bibliography, so that those readers whose interest has been sparked may find out more about the nation and its history.
Finally, there is a carefully prepared topic and person index. Readers of these volumes will find them fascinating to read and useful in understanding the contemporary world and the nations that comprise it. As series editors, it is our hope that this series will contribute to a heightened sense of global understanding as we embark on a new century.
Frank W. Featuring some of the tallest mountains, vast alluvial plains, and arid deserts, this predominantly Muslim country lies at the crossroads of history and shares several characteristics with its neighbours.
Our study of this coun- try begins with a lesser known Dravidian past, when the valley experienced the development of agriculture under the priest kings, until the advent of the Aryans, when Brahmanism and Hinduism evolved as two powerful religious forces.
Buddhism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism flourished in ancient Pakistan, which, for a time, was an important part of the Persian Empire that Alexander was able to conquer after extensive military campaigns. The revival of Hindu empires, advent of early Christian communities in the historic city of Taxila, and a series of invasions from the northwest featured in this early history until the arrival of Islam through Sufis and invading Arab armies.
Evolution of the Turkic Muslim dynasties, also known as the Delhi Sultanate, ushered in the era of a splendid Indo-Islamic culture, with Persian assuming center stage in the entire subcontinent. The Mughal Era is well known for its political, eco- nomic, and cultural contributions at a time when Europeans began to reach Indian coastal towns. This book describes the formation of Pakistan in , fol- lowing a protracted political movement, and efforts to establish a consensual national ethos.
It is hoped that the volume will be equally helpful to a student and a lay person in coming to grips with the realities of this rich and pluralis- tic historical heritage.
Several institutions including the British Library, Bodleian Library, Bath Spa University, Wolfson College, and numerous individuals across Pakistan, the subcontinent, and North Atlantic regions have helped me form my views on this vast subject. Sustained interaction with colleagues, students, and friends in Oxford, Bath, and London kept me on the right path, and my family provided energy and humor when I needed them the most.
Nighat, Sidra, Kiran, and Farooq merit special thanks; I hope that millions of capable and well-meaning Pakistanis like them will be able to take this country to its deserved place. I acknowledge the support from Greenwood Press for commissioning me to undertake this second volume after the publication of Culture and Customs of Pakistan. Special thanks are due to Kaitlin Ciarmiello for her professional ca- maraderie. I hope that this book will lead its readers on a more comprehensive journey across the further challenging labyrinths of south Asian history and Islam in the Indus regions.
Thomas to Taxila c. Cartography by Bookcomp, Inc. Formed in from what used to be called British India, Pakistan was idealized by south Asian Muslims to be a state where the forces of tradition and modernity would unite, offering economic welfare and peaceful coexistence to its in- habitants. Inclusive of areas like Punjab, the Frontier identified as Afghania , Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan, it was visualized as the heartland of the Indus Valley, which has been the home of some of the oldest cultures in this part of the subcontinent.
Even today, despite Muslims being an absolute majority, around 10 percent of Pakistanis belong to various other religious traditions, although further Islamization of the country has never been too far away from the public discourse and the agenda of religiopolitical parties. From its history to its population and from its topography to its climate, however, the country is quite diverse. Various epochs in its history offer a greater sense of antiquity and continuity to an otherwise young state.
Although it is defined as a re- cent state, Pakistan is, in fact, the inheritor of the Indus Valley civilization, viewed as one of the oldest continuing cultures in the world. In that sense, Pakistan is privileged to be the suc- cessor of a continuum of cultural and historical traditions all the way from its ancient Dravidian, Aryan, Hindu, Persian, Greek, and Buddhist past to its centuries-old Islamic heritage as bequeathed by the Arab, central Asian, and Indian influences.
Geography: Karakorams to Kalat Comprised of , square miles, with 16, square miles covered with water, Pakistan is slightly smaller that twice the size of California and overall about a twelfth the size of the United States.
Three times as large as Britain, it is inhabited by million people. To the west, Afghanistan neighbors Pakistan for 1, miles across a predominantly mountainous region extending from the peaks of the Hindu-Kush in the north toward the borders with Iran farther south. Toward the east, coastal Pakistan extends well into the marshes of Kuchh. The disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir—equal to the size of the United Kingdom—is wedged between China, Pakistan, and India, with all three states controlling parts of it.
Future waves of immigrants and invaders played Provinces and regions of Pakistan. Reproduced with permission of Palgrave Macmillan. Reproduced by Bookcomp, Inc. In the same vein, the arrival of Islam, although initially only on the coast, has been largely through the mountain passes opening into western and central Asian regions. The arrival of Islam provided enduring Sufi, artistic, literary, philosophical, and other influences, infusing the subcontinent with newer and dynamic ideas and in- stitutions.
Concurrently, it is vital to note that these Pakistani regions also operated as the bridgeheads for south Asian influences such as Buddhism, which then flourished into the interiors of the Asian continent. Here, other than ongoing geologi- cal changes, mountains, glaciers, rivers, alluvial plains, deserts, and other top- ographical features retain their own imprints.
Although they serve as a lifeline for millions in south Asia by harboring vital river and climate systems, they can also usher frequent and even destabilizing geological events in the forms of earthquakes, floods, landslides, and avalanches. This earthquake affected most of Azad Kashmir, in addition to the neighboring districts of Pakistan in the Frontier province, with the death toll reaching almost , Lying at about 5, feet above sea level, the district is not too hot in summer and is snowbound during most of the winter months.
The district is accessible only through the Lowari Pass, which is at the altitude of 10, feet, or via air travel. At the other end of the district is a unique mountain peak known as Tirichmir.
According to the local traditions, the peak, known for sudden icefalls, is defended by fairies who welcome mountaineers with bowls of milk or blood, stipulating happiness or grief. More popular than Tirichmir is Nanga Parbat situated between the Kaghan Valley and the Indus that has attracted attention from the mountaineers and writers, as it lies close to the flight route on the way to Gilgit.
Some of its slopes are bare of snow or any greenery and are quite sharp and steep. Nanga Parbat is the westernmost peak in the Himalayas and is made of several suc- cessive ridges. No other peak within the radius of 60 miles comes close to its gigantic size.
The area in between is characterized by massive slopes rather than sheer precipices. These glaciers source several rivers such as the Shyok, Saltoro, and Shigar, which join the Indus on its fresh entry from Tibet, along with several lakes dotting the entire moun- tainous regions that are often identified as the mythical Shangri La, or Little Tibet. Compared to Mount Everest, it is quite formidable.
Other peaks include Gasherbrum I at an altitude of 26, feet, Broad Peak at 26, feet, and Mashebrum at 25, feet. Farther west and adjacent to Baltistan lie the Karakoram regions of Gilgit and Hunza, which have become more accessible since the opening of the Karakoram Highway KKH , a road connecting Pakistan to China. It passes through these majestic mountains and breathtaking scenery until it reaches the Khunjerab border post at an altitude of 15, feet. The Rakaposhi is visible from many points in and around these valleys and, in fact, the KKH itself has been built on its northernmost reaches.
Lying at an altitude of 12, feet, it is the birthplace of the sport of polo, which is played even today with much fanfare. In the same way, western and coastal regions of Balochistan and those of north- ern Punjab feature low-lying mountains.
Unlike the Suleiman Mountains, sit- uated to the west of the Indus, the Salt Range hills are the final eastern frontier for Pothowar Plateau and give way to the great plains of Punjab that extend all the way to Bangladesh. These plains are fed by five rivers called the Indus River system, which itself is formed by the mountains and glaciers discussed previously. Since the canalization dating from the s and s, Punjab— the land of five rivers—has been the breadbasket for the subcontinent.
Emerg- ing through the Salt Range, the Indus at Kalabagh finally enters the plains of Punjab; the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej join its waters until the former reaches the plains of Sindh before emptying itself into the Arabian Sea. Riv- ers such as the Kabul, Swat, Chitral, Kunhar, and Kurram flow through the NWFP and eventually merge with the Indus; but Balochistan is largely arid and lacks any major rivers, although occasional monsoon rains cause some flash floods in low-lying areas.
Since the evolution of canals and barrages in the early twentieth century, Sindh has become quite fertile, although the demands for water for power and irrigation purposes create serious friction among the four constituent provinces of Pakistan. The distribution of scarce water resources in the subcontinent led to Indo-Pakistani tensions soon after independence in The complex issue was largely resolved with the in- tervention by the World Bank in , but as both countries seek to generate more power and water storage for irrigation, they have often contested the construction of newer upstream dams and barrages.
Sindh still includes some areas in the interior and farther east that feature sandy deserts.
The culture of these Pakistani ethnic groups have been greatly influenced by many of its neighbours, such as the other South Asian , Iranic , Turkic as well as the peoples of Central Asia and West Asia. The region has formed a distinct unit within the main geographical complex of South Asia , the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to the intermediary position of Afghanistan. Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield and indigenous, including Ancient India and Central Asia. Pakistan was the first region of the Indian subcontinent to be fully impacted by Islam and has thus developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further east. Pakistani literature originates from when Pakistan gained its independence as a sovereign state in
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National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Malik, Iftikhar Haider.
The History of Pakistan explores the rich and intricate past of a highly diverse nation still in the process of determining its own identity.Reply