File Name: phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water .zip
Soil contamination has led to serious land tenure problems, reduction in land usability for agricultural production; as a consequence, food insecurity is nowadays a global challenge. Indeed, with rapid population growth across the world, the food demand for consumption has drastically increased and traditional ways of producing food cannot meet with the actual demand. Industrialization has been acknowledged as a way out to sustain humanity with food. Unfortunately, the later has further turn into a threat to the environment. In effect, several potentially toxic elements PTE are being released in the environment and soil systems; and arable or agricultural lands are getting restraint, limited and scarce. Nowadays, there is a consensus on remediating contaminated lands with PTE, mainly inorganic contaminants, metals. The state at which a metal is found in the soil greatly influences its bioavailability, interaction with plants and the level at which it will threaten toxicity the environment and thus human.
Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. Commonly high concentrations of cesium Cs and strontium 90 Sr are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue.
Phytoremediation technologies use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants. Although attractive for its cost, phytoremediation has not been demonstrated to redress any significant environmental challenge to the extent that contaminated space has been reclaimed. Phytoremediation is proposed as a cost-effective plant-based approach of environmental remediation that takes advantage of the ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to detoxify various compounds. The concentrating effect results from the ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate chemicals. The remediation effect is quite different.
The potential of Arundo donax L. The growth and physiology of plants were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Relatively low Cd uptake occurred during soil experiment with low translocation factor TF values. Consequent to global industrialization, heavy metal pollution is a widespread problem which has become a major environmental concern due to hazardous effects on human and environmental health. In industrialized societies, heavy metals are the world over environmental contaminants. Air or water pollution by metals varies from soil pollution, because heavy metals persevere in soil for a longer time period as compared with the other compartment of the biosphere [ 1 ].
There are several different types of phytoremediation mechanisms. These are:. Rhizosphere biodegradation. In this process, the plant releases natural substances through its roots, supplying nutrients to microorganisms in the soil.
Heavy metal accumulation in soil has been rapidly increased due to various natural processes and anthropogenic industrial activities. As heavy metals are non-biodegradable, they persist in the environment, have potential to enter the food chain through crop plants, and eventually may accumulate in the human body through biomagnification. Owing to their toxic nature, heavy metal contamination has posed a serious threat to human health and the ecosystem. Therefore, remediation of land contamination is of paramount importance. Phytoremediation is an eco-friendly approach that could be a successful mitigation measure to revegetate heavy metal-polluted soil in a cost-effective way.
Heavy metal—contaminated agricultural soil is a complex and serious phenomenon that has hazardous effects on the environment and, consequently, on humans, animals, plants, and beneficial microorganisms by influencing and tainting food chains, soil, irrigation or potable water, aquifers, and the surrounding atmosphere Wuana and Okieimen, Cadmium Cd is an important poisonous element that is not known for any essential biological function. Furthermore, Cd may cause malfunctioning of metabolic processes Campbell, In plants, Cd causes various types of damage, such as the disturbance of metal homeostasis resulting in iron deficiency in the shoot Fodor et al.
Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results.
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