# Friction in solids and liquids notes pdf

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### Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Class 8 Science ch 12 notes take a comprehensive approach in covering the chapter on friction. It specifically focuses on the topics that are important for CBSE board students. Preparing from this note will help the students to solve questions from this chapter with greater ease. The free PDF can be downloaded from the official website of Vedantu. Chapter 12 Science class 8 notes discuss the following topics on friction:. Causes of Friction.

Friction can work for or against us. For example, putting sand on an icy sidewalk increases friction so you are less likely to slip. On the other hand, too much friction between moving parts in a car engine can cause the parts to wear out. Other examples of friction are illustrated in the two Figures below Friction between the graphite in a pencil and a sheet of paper leaves a mark on the paper. Friction between a bicycle brake pad and the rim of a wheel causes the wheel to stop turning.

Notes for Friction chapter of class 11 physics. If we push a book on a horizontal table with a certain initial velocity, it eventually comes to rest. This shows that there is some force opposing the motion of the book on the table. It arises due to interaction between the molecules of the book and of the table. Actually, whenever the surface of a body slides over the surface of another body, each body exerts a frictional force on the other which is parallel to the surface in contact. The frictional force on each body is opposite to the direction of its motion relative to the other.

Surface tension is the tendency of liquid surfaces to shrink into the minimum surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects e. At liquid—air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other due to cohesion than to the molecules in the air due to adhesion. There are two primary mechanisms in play. One is an inward force on the surface molecules causing the liquid to contract. Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules to each other through a web of hydrogen bonds , water has a higher surface tension Surface tension is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity.

Friction in Solids & Liquids. Formulae. 1. Frictional force: F = μN where, N is normal reaction. 2. Coefficient of static friction: g a. N. Fs. S. = =μ. 3.

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Toppers Portal Digital Store. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. Mechanics, Basic Concepts. It is an opposing force that opposes the motion of one body over the surface of another body. Friction generates heat, if two surfaces are rubbed together, enough heat can be generated and the temperature can be raised to the level where the parts subjected to the friction may be fused together.

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into thermal energy that is, it converts work to heat. This property can have dramatic consequences, as illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood together to start a fire. Kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy whenever motion with friction occurs, for example when a viscous fluid is stirred.

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There are some fluids which offer resistance to motion. This resistance of fluid to motion is like internal friction which is similar to friction when solid moves on a surface. This is called viscosity.

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Matter is the "stuff" that makes up the universe — everything that takes up space and has mass is matter. All matter is made up of atoms , which are in turn made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Atoms come together to form molecules, which are the building blocks for all types of matter, according to Washington State University. Both atoms and molecules are held together by a form of potential energy called chemical energy.

Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning. Revised date sheet for Class 12 - scroll down for datesheet for class 10 Revised datesheet for Class

#### The five phases of matter

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