File Name: effects of air pollution on buildings and materials .zip
This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Powered by. Air pollution consists of chemicals or particle s in the air that can harm the health of humans, animals, and plants.
It also damages buildings. Pollutant s in the air take many forms. They can be gases, solid particles, or liquid droplets. Sources of Air Pollution Pollution enters the Earth's atmosphere in many different ways. Most air pollution is created by people, taking the form of emission s from factories, cars, planes, or aerosol can s. Second-hand cigarette smoke is also considered air pollution.
These man-made sources of pollution are called anthropogenic source s. Some types of air pollution, such as smoke from wildfire s or ash from volcano es, occur naturally.
These are called natural source s. Air pollution is most common in large cities where emissions from many different sources are concentrated. Sometimes, mountains or tall buildings prevent air pollution from spreading out.
This air pollution often appears as a cloud making the air murky. It is called smog. The word "smog" comes from combining the words "smoke" and "fog. However, many developed nations also have air pollution problems. Los Angeles, California, is nicknamed Smog City. Indoor Air Pollution Air pollution is usually thought of as smoke from large factories or exhaust from vehicles. But there are many types of indoor air pollution as well. Heating a house by burning substances such as kerosene , wood, and coal can contaminate the air inside the house.
Ash and smoke make breathing difficult, and they can stick to walls, food, and clothing. Naturally-occurring radon gas, a cancer -causing material, can also build up in homes. Radon is released through the surface of the Earth. Inexpensive systems installed by professionals can reduce radon levels. Some construction materials, including insulation , are also dangerous to people's health.
In addition, ventilation , or air movement, in homes and rooms can lead to the spread of toxic mold. A single colony of mold may exist in a damp, cool place in a house, such as between walls. The mold's spore s enter the air and spread throughout the house. People can become sick from breathing in the spores. Effects On Humans People experience a wide range of health effects from being exposed to air pollution.
Effects can be broken down into short-term effects and long-term effects. Short-term effect s, which are temporary, include illnesses such as pneumonia or bronchitis. They also include discomfort such as irritation to the nose, throat, eyes, or skin. Air pollution can also cause headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Bad smells made by factories, garbage, or sewer system s are considered air pollution, too. These odor s are less serious but still unpleasant. Long-term effects of air pollution can last for years or for an entire lifetime.
They can even lead to a person's death. Long-term health effects from air pollution include heart disease , lung cancer, and respiratory disease s such as emphysema. Air pollution can also cause long-term damage to people's nerve s, brain, kidney s, liver , and other organs.
Some scientists suspect air pollutants cause birth defect s. Nearly 2. People react differently to different types of air pollution. Young children and older adults, whose immune system s tend to be weaker, are often more sensitive to pollution.
Conditions such as asthma , heart disease, and lung disease can be made worse by exposure to air pollution. The length of exposure and amount and type of pollutants are also factors. Effects On The Environment Like people, animals, and plants, entire ecosystem s can suffer effects from air pollution. Haze , like smog, is a visible type of air pollution that obscure s shapes and colors. Hazy air pollution can even muffle sounds.
Air pollution particles eventually fall back to Earth. Air pollution can directly contaminate the surface of bodies of water and soil.
This can kill crop s or reduce their yield. It can kill young trees and other plants. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide particles in the air, can create acid rain when they mix with water and oxygen in the atmosphere. These air pollutants come mostly from coal-fired power plant s and motor vehicle s. When acid rain falls to Earth, it damages plants by changing soil composition ; degrade s water quality in rivers, lakes and streams; damages crops; and can cause buildings and monuments to decay.
Like humans, animals can suffer health effects from exposure to air pollution. Birth defects, diseases, and lower reproductive rate s have all been attribute d to air pollution. Global Warming Global warming is an environmental phenomenon caused by natural and anthropogenic air pollution. It refers to rising air and ocean temperatures around the world. This temperature rise is at least partially caused by an increase in the amount of greenhouse gas es in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases trap heat energy in the Earths atmosphere.
Usually, more of Earths heat escapes into space. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that has had the biggest effect on global warming. Carbon dioxide is emit ted into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuel s coal, gasoline , and natural gas. Humans have come to rely on fossil fuels to power cars and planes, heat homes, and run factories. Doing these things pollutes the air with carbon dioxide.
Other greenhouse gases emitted by natural and artificial sources also include methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases. Methane is a major emission from coal plants and agricultural processes. Nitrous oxide is a common emission from industrial factories, agriculture, and the burning of fossil fuels in cars. Fluorinate d gases, such as hydrofluorocarbon s, are emitted by industry. Fluorinated gases are often used instead of gases such as chlorofluorocarbons CFCs.
CFCs have been outlawed in many places because they deplete the ozone layer. Worldwide, many countries have taken steps to reduce or limit greenhouse gas emissions to combat global warming. The Kyoto Protocol , first adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in , is an agreement between countries that they will work to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. The United States has not signed that treaty.
Regulation In addition to the international Kyoto Protocol, most developed nations have adopted laws to regulate emissions and reduce air pollution. In the United States, debate is under way about a system called cap and trade to limit emissions. This system would cap, or place a limit, on the amount of pollution a company is allowed. Companies that exceeded their cap would have to pay.
Companies that polluted less than their cap could trade or sell their remaining pollution allowance to other companies. Cap and trade would essentially pay companies to limit pollution. The WHOs guidelines are tougher than most individual countries existing guidelines. The WHO guidelines aim to reduce air pollution-related deaths by 15 percent a year.
Reduction Anybody can take steps to reduce air pollution. Millions of people every day make simple changes in their lives to do this. Taking public transportation instead of driving a car, or riding a bike instead of traveling in carbon dioxide-emitting vehicles are a couple of ways to reduce air pollution.
Avoiding aerosol cans, recycling yard trimmings instead of burning them, and not smoking cigarettes are others. These tests sent invisible radioactive particles into the atmosphere. These air pollution particles traveled with wind currents, eventually falling to Earth, sometimes hundreds of miles away in states including Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and Washington.
These areas were considered to be "downwind" from the Nevada Test Site. Decades later, people living in those downwind areascalled "downwinders"began developing cancer at above-normal rates. In , the U. London Smog What has come to be known as the London Smog of , or the Great Smog of , was a four-day incident that sickened , people and caused as many as 12, deaths.
Very cold weather in December led residents of London, England, to burn more coal to keep warm. Smoke and other pollutants became trapped by a thick fog that settled over the city. The polluted fog became so thick that people could only see a few meters in front of them.
Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings , or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, such as gases such as ammonia , carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxides , methane and chlorofluorocarbons , particulates both organic and inorganic , and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Air pollution is a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, and the individual's health status and genetics.
This study looks at the new use of construction materials as urban elements to reduce air pollution. It first discusses the problem posed to human health by airborne nitrogen oxides and the main emission sources. To remove NOx gases from the air new construction materials are being developed with photocatalytic additives such as TiO 2. By means of a sequence of sunlight-triggered chemical reactions the TiO 2 additive is capable of breaking down the NOx and NO molecules. The right formulation of raw materials can produce cement with a great potential for reducing air pollution in built-up environments. Por L. Tenured professor.
Air pollutants can harm the buildings and monuments in several ways, including abrasion, deposition, chemical reaction and corrosion. Particulates such as soot.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Carbon monoxide CO —a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and toxic air pollutant—is produced in the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, oil, coal, and wood.
Air pollution is understood to directly and indirectly contribute to a range of social, economic and environmental impacts. Widespread and fast action to reduce short-lived climate pollutant emissions has the potential to reduce the amount of warming that would occur over the next few decades by as much as 0. Ironically perhaps, the air pollution that is partially created by buildings are directly impacting their ability to perform in a sustainable way.
The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum. The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect. They cover the leaf blade reducing light penetration and blocking the opening of stomata.
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.
Damage caused to materials exposed in the atmosphere constitutes one of the most important direct effects of acidifying air pollutants. Systematic field and laboratory investigations performed in the recent decade in many countries have contributed to a considerable increase in the knowledge on the mechanisms of the effects of pollutants, on the quantification of damage and on the assessment of the cost of damage. Beside the very important role of SO 2 for several materials also studies of the direct or synergistic effect of NO x and O 3 have contributed to the understanding of the complex pollution effects.
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The materials most sensitive to pollutants are calcareous building stones and ferrous metals. Manifestations of damage include losses of mass, changes in.Reply