theories of development capitalism colonialism and dependency pdf

Theories of development capitalism colonialism and dependency pdf

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Three Theories of Underdevelopment

Dependency Theory seeks to analyze international politics by concerning itself with the existing unequal relationship among nation-states i. The origin of Dependency Theory came as an alternative to the theories of modernisation and development as formulated and supported by the Western and Marxist scholars. Naturally, it involves a strong criticism of both Structural and Marxist approaches. The Dependency theory begins with a study of the colonial impact on the indigenous socio-economic and political structures, then seeks to analyze the characteristics of the new socio- economic structure, and finally seeks to trace its evolution in relations to both the internal changes and developments in the World capitalist system.

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Africa is home to the oldest inhabited territory on earth, with the human race originating from this continent. That the art of writing emerged from Egypt is not more important than the fact that other prominent civilizations in Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Oyo, Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and so on, emerged in Africa even before the dominance of Roman and Greek civilizations. In other words, the peoples of Africa had developed ways of exploiting their environment, used same to satisfy their wants and needs, and had created institutions around these survival techniques ever before when the Portuguese established the first trading port along the coast of Elmina. In the early nineteenth century, the scramble for Africa by European imperial powers brought an end to independent development in Africa. By the quarter of a century, Africa was partitioned for different European interests.

In this paper I am going to describe some essential points of dependency theory. Its history, its principles, perspective and critics of dependency theory is to be the focus points of the study. First of all, dependency theory is the study of world perception. The historical background of the theory is traced to mid twentieth century beginning with works of Paul Prebisch in Economic Commission in Latin America under United Nations. Prebisch concluded that the global economic relations, the role of international institutions and their missions do not perpetuate equal consequences for both developing and developed nations.

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In International Political Economy, there are competing theoretical perspectives regarding the question of global inequalities and the North-South divide. The aim of this essay is to examine how traditional dependency theory, which was popular in the s and s as a criticism of modernization theory, can still be a useful tool for explaining global inequalities despite the challenges of the 21 st century. For instance, there were some who supported and agreed with the solution for creating more global equality in a socialist revolution inspired by Marxism, while others favored reforms in the international economic system Herath , p. In order to adequately examine the usefulness of the concept of dependency theory for explaining global inequalities, this essay deals initially with some of the constraints of dependency theory and its problem of ethnocentrism and generalization. The existence of shortcomings in the dependency theory should not automatically indicate that dependency theory is a useless approach which cannot be used at least as a conceptual orientation to the global division of wealth. Dependency theorists often draw a connection between the role of the capitalist system and the underdevelopment of the periphery. In order to illuminate the relevance of this connection for the 21 st century, this essay also investigates the role of the financial crisis of in shaping and fostering global inequalities along the North-South divide.

Three Theories of Underdevelopment

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Neocolonialism is the practice of using economics , globalisation , cultural imperialism and conditional aid to influence a country instead of the previous colonial methods of direct military control imperialism or indirect political control hegemony. Neocolonialism differs from standard globalisation and development aid in that it typically results in a relationship of dependence, subservience, or financial obligation towards the neocolonialist nation. This may result in an undue degree of political control [1] or spiraling debt obligations, [2] functionally imitating the relationship of traditional colonialism.

2 comments

  • Paige V. 27.04.2021 at 00:22

    Dependency theories have provided an alternative approach to looking at unilinear growth models.

    Reply
  • Jesus C. 29.04.2021 at 03:06

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