metabolic syndrome and exercise pdf

Metabolic syndrome and exercise pdf

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Criteria for metabolic syndrome

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Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Criteria for metabolic syndrome

The authors and planners of this CNE activity have disclosed no relevant financial relationships with any commercial companies pertaining to this activity. See the end of this article to learn how to earn 1. To promote holistic care and improve patient outcomes, all nurses need to know about metabolic syndrome. A combination of conditions that together increase the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD and diabetes, metabolic syndrome is the precursor to complications that may be lifelong, chronic, or even lead to death.

Many experts believe the root cause is obesity. These statistics are significant because Americans are developing diabetes and CVD at much younger ages than ever, due to overweight or obesity. Metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of CVD and quintuples the diabetes risk. Risk is especially high in men older than age 45 and women older than age Patients meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome if they have at least three of the five conditions below:.

Patients with three or more of the conditions below are diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Management Metabolic syndrome calls for management of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and obesity, as appropriate. Elevated triglyceride levels correlate directly with CVD. Medications that lower triglycerides include niacin and fibric agents, such as fenofibrate and gemfibrozil.

Management includes exercise, smoking cessation, and dietary modifications. Advise patients to:. Be aware that high triglyceride levels are linked to insulin resistance as occurs in type 2 diabetes.

Insulin resistance can stem from several factors—obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, and a sedentary lifestyle. It leads to hypertension, low HDL levels, and high triglyceride levels. Insulin resistance commonly occurs in conjunction with other CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and a predisposition to blood clots. Managing insulin resistance involves dietary modifications such as increased intake of whole grain foods and fiber to improve tissue responsiveness to insulin.

Cholesterol levels relate directly to CVD development. Recommended hypercholesterolemia treatment includes medications that target high cholesterol levels, as well as an exercise plan; reduction of dietary saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol; smoking cessation; and alcohol restriction.

Medications may include HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors statins , bile acid sequestrants, and fibric acid agents. Statins are superior for lowering LDL cholesterol and reducing myocardial infarction MI and stroke risk. Management of hypertension typically includes increased physical activity, a weight-loss regimen, dietary modifications, and antihypertensive drugs.

AHA recommends restricting dietary saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, added sugars, and alcohol. Antihypertensives include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, alpha blockers, and alpha-adrenergic antagonists.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 26 million American adults and children had diabetes in —a staggering statistic because elevated glucose levels are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome.

Diabetes treatment includes dietary modification reducing intake of carbohydrates, fats, and sugar while increasing whole grains, fiber, and lean meats , exercise, and weight control. Diabetes medications include insulin and oral drugs, such as sulfonylureas, biguanides, incretin therapies, and meglitinides. Maintaining blood glucose and hemoglobin Hb A1C levels within normal range is crucial to preventing complications that can lead to CVD. The HbA1C level reflects the average blood glucose level over the previous 2 or 3 months, indicating the level of diabetes control.

The higher the glucose level over the past few months, the higher the HbA1C level. See the box below. One in every three U. Experts expect obesity to replace smoking as the leading cause of chronic illness and preventable death. Being overweight can increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Overweight is defined as a body mass index BMI of 25 to The primary treatment for obesity is weight reduction, usually by decreasing caloric and fat intake and getting adequate exercise.

Foods appropriate for diabetic patients include fruits, whole grains, lean meat, nonfat dairy products, and fish. Specific weight-loss diets include:. Bariatric surgery may be a weight-loss option for selected obese patients.

Eligibility depends on such factors as specific weight, comorbid conditions, and body build. Most bariatric-surgery patients opt for a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Others undergo a laparoscopic sleeve gastrostomy. Before surgery, patients must agree to embark on a strict diet and exercise regimen. In some cases, diabetes and hypertension disappear after bariatric surgery.

Medications used to promote weight loss include megestrol, sibutramine, phentermine, orlistat, and diethylpropion. These drugs can have serious side effects, so patients must be monitored closely.

Other OTC weight-loss products include dexedrine and certain herbal supplements. Caution patients that OTC ingredients may cause serious side effects and that some can lead to or worsen heart disease. Inform patients that successful weight loss takes time, patience, and motivation. At times, weight loss may not occur despite dietary modification, exercise, or drug therapy.

Lack of progress and eagerness to see quick results may cause some patients to give up, leading to depression. Stay supportive while monitoring patients for signs and symptoms of depression. To evaluate for risk factors of metabolic syndrome, obtain a thorough health history, perform a physical examination, and check laboratory findings. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Because a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome raises the risk of other serious conditions, assess patients for signs and symptoms of the following associated conditions:.

Metabolic syndrome can be controlled largely through lifestyle changes the preferred treatment. To help patients make recommended lifestyle changes, teach them about risk factors and how to alter them. Point out that dietary modifications that may help prevent or control diabetes also can lower the CVD risk. With the increasing prevalence and life-threatening implications of metabolic syndrome, all nurses need to be familiar with this condition and skilled in assessing for signs, symptoms, and laboratory markers.

Your knowledge can make a life-saving difference. Helene Harris and Carla J. Adams MP, Koch R. Pharmacology: Connections to Nursing Practice. Is visceral fat a better predictor of the incidence of impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus than subcutaneous abdominal fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Accessed March 10, Relationship between smoking and metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev. Diabetes Care. Hodgson B, Kizior RJ. Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook Louis, Mo. An analysis of popular weight loss diet types in relation to metabolic syndrome therapeutic guidelines. Medsurg Nurs. Mayo Clinic Staff. Metabolic syndrome. April 15, Metabolic syndrome: Insulin resistance syndrome; Syndrome X.

Last reviewed: June 2, Accessed March 6, Obstructive sleep apnea, insulin resistance, and steatohepatitis in severe obesity.

Am J Cardiol. Simply use your Visa or MasterCard to pay the processing fee. The planners and author of this CNE activity have disclosed no relevant financial relationships with any commercial companies pertaining to this CNE. Read more Clinical Topics Patient safety awareness March 9, How do we create a mindset focused on safety? Patient Safety Awareness Week is March In addition to Takeaways: Nursing has the responsibility to provide evidence-based practice that meets patient, family, and community expectations.

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High blood pressure hypertension is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. A blood pressure reading is given in millimeters of mercury mm Hg. It has two numbers. You can have high blood pressure for years without any symptoms.

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Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. Received 11 April Published 18 November Volume Pages — Review by Single anonymous peer review. Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonio Brunetti.

PDF | Regular physical activity practice has been recommended for the prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases and other chronic | Find, read.


Metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X, is a combination of conditions that raises your risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. According to the American Heart Association AHA , metabolic syndrome is when you have three or more of the following conditions:. The good news is that you can reduce your risk and even reverse metabolic syndrome with healthy daily lifestyle choices. In fact, doctors recommend diet and exercise changes as the first call to action for metabolic syndrome.


The authors and planners of this CNE activity have disclosed no relevant financial relationships with any commercial companies pertaining to this activity. See the end of this article to learn how to earn 1. To promote holistic care and improve patient outcomes, all nurses need to know about metabolic syndrome. A combination of conditions that together increase the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD and diabetes, metabolic syndrome is the precursor to complications that may be lifelong, chronic, or even lead to death. Many experts believe the root cause is obesity.

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Metabolic Syndrome Diet

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between different types of physical activity PA and metabolic syndrome MetS.


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