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The idea that games can have positive impacts upon critical thinking and problem solving is widely accepted in today's digital society, yet the effect of video games on human cognition is still largely unexplored. Gaming and Cognition: Theories And Practice From The Learning Sciences applies the principles of research in the study of human cognition to video games, providing a critical examination of the rigor and design of the experiments in the study of cognition and gaming.
Combining many aspects of the learning sciences such as psychology, instructional design, and education into one coherent whole, this book presents historical, theoretical, and practical perspectives.
This volume captures a moment in time when a field collectively pauses to take stock, and individual researchers and practitioners reflect on the decisions they will make moving forward. Twenty-five years ago, the idea that playing video games would lead to significant cognitive benefits flew in the face of conventional wisdom.
Video games were seen as a frivolous waste of time, if not an insidious medium that promoted violence and signaled a decline in the work ethic and intelligence of our youth. Today, of course, playing video games is far less controversial, and the idea that games can have positive impacts is widely accepted. While game researchers and designers might feel encouraged by the changes over the last quarter-century, a careful examination of the scholarship on games and cognition during this time is in many ways discouraging.
Quantity is not quality, and while we can point to a vast number of authors and publications that now make up the games and learning landscape, closer inspection reveals a highly fragmented field that is at times surprisingly unaware of prior research, theories, and models. The popularity of games as an area of study has attracted many people from multiple disciplines and perspectives, which is good.
But the value of diversity lies in the synergies that result from shared perspectives, and the literature in the emerging field of serious games has not always been characterized by this. Much of our scholarship has failed to build on existing research in related areas, with many assuming that as a new medium, serious?
Where and when scholars do look to prior research in areas like psychology, education, communication, and anthropology, they are often unaware of parallel research efforts by others who study games.
This has resulted in a highly diverse but somewhat incoherent body of research in which we have unwittingly reinvented the wheel and failed to follow up on important avenues of research. The diverse approach to research we all bring to this emerging field has generated a rich body of theory and practice. But a field only matures through periods of expansion and contraction, on the one hand generating enough theory and practice to build upon, yet on the other pausing at strategic times for critical examination of that base.
The origins of this book are in this latter process. While there are many aspects of this field worth studying, one could argue that the effects of digital game play on human cognition in its broadest sense, human thinking and behavior is the sin qua non of what we most commonly refer to as serious games.
Yet this seemingly obvious conclusion often gets lost in practice and research. The number of people interested in designing and writing about games seems to be greater than the number of those interested in conducting the necessary research.
Games are routinely cited for their ability to promote critical thinking and problem solving, yet the majority of our research in this area consists of thought experiments and convenience sample studies using unvalidated, inconsistent measures of these constructs.
Like the gold rush of the 19th century in the United States, it is almost as if once the idea that games could have cognitive benefits caught on, the rush to design those games was on.
To be sure, we learn a lot from the design process itself, and the theory that emerges is often unique and critical to refining our understanding of a phenomenon. We must also look to theory across disciplines to determine which are relevant to games and cognition, to propose and validate our own theories and models through empirical research, and to then use those theories to design games.
Cognition is studied across many different disciplines, including psychology, education, instructional design, and communication. While each of these fields brings critical theoretical and practical perspectives to bear on the study of cognition, perhaps none sufficiently captures the full range of theory as it relates to human cognition in the digital age. The need for cross-disciplinary approaches to the study of cognition, coupled with the increasing role of technology in human culture has led to a new field of studies referred to as the learning sciences.
The learning sciences, which also include computer science and anthropology, emphasize a rigorous, empirical approach to theory and practice in the study of cognition in general and more specifically in learning and technology. As such, they may represent the best lens for studying the cognitive effects of digital games. I come to the study of games via English, psychology, and instructional design, the latter two having the most to do with my interest in cognition.
As someone interested in developing multimedia, I spent a lot of time looking for guidance on effective design rather than on the tools themselves. My search led me to the field of instructional design, where I spent the majority of my time reading work in what is now called the learning sciences but which at the time was cognitive psychology, education, communication, and instructional design. While everything I read was valuable, it was the studies that focused on empirical testing of well-established theories of cognition as they applied to learning and technology that had the greatest impact on my understanding and later design of games for learning.
I attributed the small number of such studies to the relative immaturity of the field. While there was no shortage of claims in the literature about how games could improve processing of visual and other forms of information, the majority of these claims relied solely on anecdotal and thought experiment evidence. Green and Bavalier actually set out to test these assumptions.
They employed rigorous, empirical protocols with eye-tracking equipment and meticulous operational definitions of separate visual processing skills to compare video game players VGPs to nonvideo game players NVGPs. What made this stand out was not their conclusion, which many had asserted before, but their rigorous methodology in establishing it.
They followed up their research with a study that exposed NVGPs to 10 hours of gameplay to see if the observed differences were the result of self-selection correlation or video game play itself causation. They found that indeed it was video game play itself that resulted in visual processing improvement. Why has this research been more the exception than the rule? The answer is that it is harder to do. It takes expertise in the cognitive and learning sciences, knowledge of rigorous, empirical methodologies, specialized equipment, funding, and participants.
Of course, this is only one kind of research, and I do not mean to suggest that it is the only approach with merit. Grounded theory, design theory, qualitative research, and philosophical approaches to the study of cultural, social, and anthropological effects are all important to the long-term success of the serious game field.
Likewise, we cannot conduct experimental research without the theoretical and practical work that derives from these other approaches. But focusing on cognitive research theories, models, and methodologies is critical and too often ignored in video game studies, irrespective of the approach used.
This book arises out of that belief, and it is my hope that you either already agree by virtue of having selected this book for reading or that you will come to see the value of the approaches the authors in this volume have taken to answer important questions about video games and cognition.
The chapters represent 15 different disciplines in the learning sciences psychology, serious game design, educational technology, applied linguistics, instructional design, eLearning, computer engineering, educational psychology, cognitive science, digital media, human—computer interaction, artificial intelligence, computer science, anthropology, education , by authors from four countries Australia, Canada, Singapore, and the United States.
In doing so, I assigned reviewers chapters based on interest, expertise, and in the case of reviewers who were also authors, on the potential of the author to benefit from a different disciplinary perspective on work similar to their own. Based on these reviews, some authors were invited to submit full chapters, which were again reviewed using the same double-blind process as before.
Like all good scholarship, each chapter in this volume focuses on theory past and present, and all have practical implications, so the classification of chapters into these different sections is somewhat artificial. The first section discusses past video game research in the learning sciences to help establish where we have been.
The second section presents works by four learning sciences researchers that rely on existing theory and models to propose new frameworks, theories, and models for understanding learning and cognition in video games.
The third section presents work that synthesizes across multiple disciplines and theories to propose specific heuristics for the design of video games for learning. The fourth section presents significant research studies that are as valuable for their methodologies and approaches as for their findings.
The fifth section presents research by educational game developers that has both been informed by theories and models in cognitive science and which proposes new hybrid models for cognition in educational games. Each author was also asked to generate a list of "must-reads" on their chapter topic for those who want to understand more about the theory and approach behind each chapter.
In addition, they were also asked to identify what they would consider to be the ten most important texts for interdisciplinary studies of serious games. Both of these lists can be found at the end of each chapter, just before the references. In addition, I have collated all of the top ten interdisciplinary texts across this book and a companion volume that collected the same information. I present this composite list sorted by rank and author at the end of each book.
You will find both a short and long version of the table of contents, the latter of which provides my own summary of what each chapter is about, so I will confine my comments here in the preface to a discussion of each section of the book and how I think each chapter contributes to that section.
It is fitting, then, that this volume begins with a chapter in which she revisits her work 25 years later. Given the speed with which games and their study change from year to year, I was surprised to see how relevant her findings and suggestions are today and dismayed by how many of the research avenues she suggested there remain, for the most part, unexplored.
If the dates were changed, this chapter could for the most part be read as a contemporary contribution to the field, which is a testament to her foresight as well as a depressing commentary on our progress as scholars in this field. Greenfield provides an analysis and running commentary on this work from her perspective today, identifying what has changed and what has not as well as providing suggestions for current research graduate students take note!
As I described earlier, one of the weaknesses of research by new scholars in video games today is the failure to account for, build on, or refine existing research. While we are certain to need new theory to fully account for games and cognition, that theory must begin with prior research. Games may be a new medium, but cognition is the oldest game of them all, and unless video games have turned thousands of years of evolutionary process on its head, it stands to reason that some of what we know already about cognition will be useful in the study of games.
In this spirit, Katrin Becker provides a literature review of games in education in this second chapter of this volume that highlights some of the most important findings of the last 50 years. While no literature review in this field can be comprehensive today, her critical analysis of some of the most significant research in our field should be required reading for new scholars and students in this field.
As fast as the literature in this field is growing, it is not necessarily representative of the full range of video games today. While massive multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPGs are among the fastest growing and most widely adopted type of game, the research base for them is quite sparse when it comes to empirical studies of their cognitive effects.
Given the prevalence of MMORPGs and their potential to cross social, cultural, and cognitive areas of study, they are one of the most underexplored and important areas of video game research. In the final chapter in this section, Bodi Anderson provides a conceptual framework for MMORPG use in research and learning and describes current and future trends for their study.
As we build on prior research across multiple disciplines in our own research, it stands to reason that new theories and models will also emerge. Whether as the result of our extension of existing theories as we apply them within this new medium or because of the unique features and applications of the medium itself, these new theories will serve as a bridge between past and future research.
In the first chapter in this section, John Dempsey weaves many strands from the past together using new concepts to propose a model for the design of learning outcomes in games. He argues persuasively that current instructional taxonomies are too unwieldy and impractical for widespread adoption and that they ignore critical differences between learning outcomes that are representative of the actual performance elemental learning and learning outcomes that serve a supporting cognitive role in that performance synthetic learning.
In addition to the resulting instructional implications e. Richard Swan also focuses on the application of existing theory and practice to the solution of one of the most pervasive challenges for game-based learning design: engagement. All the learning theory in the world will make little practical impact if it fails to account for the unique nature of game play experience. While we may be able to design effective learning environments using games, doing so in a way that captures the engagement of commercial games remains an elusive goal.
Swan identifies principles from design theory and applies them to the concept of engagement. The principles he uncovers not only have significant implications for the design of engaging educational games but serendipitously lead to a concept he calls feedforward. This latter concept reflects the anticipatory cognition that players employ during engagement, and he argues it may be far more useful than its conceptually flawed cousin, feedback. In the final chapter in this section, Wen-Hao David Huang and Sharon Tettegah identify a gap in the literature that has important implications for the design of persuasive games, or games for change.
Persuasive games, however, often focus on attitude change and while this is an instructional outcome in many taxonomies, little attention has been paid to the instructional and cognitive requirements for promoting attitude change via gaming environments. One of the theoretical paths to attitude change in many persuasive games, they argue, is to induce empathy for characters in the game that ostensibly represent the people involved in those real-world situations e.
They suggest that empathy itself may have its own cognitive load requirements that should be taken into account when designing persuasive games. Theory must lead to practice both as a means of validating models through research and for guiding future development of games. This section comprises chapters that connect theory to practice in the form of principles and heuristics that can be used to guide future educational game design.
Amy Adcock, Ginger Watson, Gary Morrison, and Lee Belfore argue that games with designed learning outcomes are essentially another form of exploratory learning and that the empirical literature and related design principles in exploratory learning environments is therefore relevant to the design of educational games. In connecting theory to the practice of educational game design, they rely on key concepts from the learning sciences such as interface affordances, cognitive load, and the development of expertise within gameplay.
They propose a grounded set of design heuristics that can be validated and used to design education games today. Renae Low, Putai Jin, and John Sweller connect the literature base in cognitive load, arguably one of the most significant issues facing educational game designers, to educational game design. Like Dempsey, they outline a key distinction in learning outcomes based on biologically primary and secondary knowledge. The result is an extensible model for classifying types of learning and managing cognitive load through the design of the game environment.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Buckingham and A. Buckingham , A. This article addresses the notion of teaching about games as a cultural medium in their own right. This includes critical analyses of existing texts but also involves enabling students to create their own. Implications of this approach are discussed and concrete, research-based examples are provided.
PDF | On Jan 1, , DAVID BUCKINGHAM and others published Game Literacy in Theory and Practice | Find, read and cite all the research.
Get familiar with the concepts and tools of computer science as you learn a subset of the Java programming language. The American Mathematics Competitions are a series of examinations and curriculum materials that build problem-solving skills and mathematical knowledge in middle and high school students. PDF forms are indicated by these icons: or. Mathematics Practice Questions 1. You can also play games with your spelling bee words and take tests as well.
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Read Theory Answer Key. Key Takeaways Key Points. Created by Lesson Practice Cold-read task. Master word analogies with a straightforward exercise. According to schema theory, as people learn about the world, they develop a large network of knowledge structures, or schemas, with each schema connected to many others. This is just one of the solutions for you to be successful. Science Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes.
Но Сьюзан не желала иметь с ним никакого дела. И, что, на взгляд Хейла, было еще хуже, влюбилась в университетского профессора, который к тому же зарабатывал сущие гроши. Очень жаль, если она истратит свой превосходный генетический заряд, произведя потомство от этого выродка, - а ведь могла бы предпочесть его, Грега. У нас были бы красивые дети, - подумал. - Чем ты занята? - спросил Хейл, пробуя иной подход. Сьюзан ничего не ответила.
- Где сейчас находится Халохот. Смит бросил взгляд через плечо.
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The idea that games can have positive impacts upon critical thinking and problem solving is widely accepted in today's digital society, yet the effect of video games on human cognition is still largely unexplored.Reply