File Name: jet condenser and surface condenser .zip
In sugar Industry Condensers and cooling systems are used in boiling process to create vacuum in pans and evaporators. The principle of condenser is based on the transmission of heat content in the vapour to the cooling or injection water. The quantity of the cooling water necessary for condensation of vapour is found by equating the heat given up by the vapour in condensing to the heat absorbed by the cold water. The steam condensers may be broadly classified into the following two types, depending upon the way in which the steam is condensed. Direct Contact condenser or Jet condenser or Mixing type condenser 2.
A surface condenser is a commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed to condense exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations. Where cooling water is in short supply, an air-cooled condenser is often used. An air-cooled condenser is however, significantly more expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine exhaust pressure and temperature as a water-cooled surface condenser. Surface condensers are also used in applications and industries other than the condensing of steam turbine exhaust in power plants. In thermal power plants, the purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency , and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water referred to as steam condensate so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. The steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam to mechanical power.
Apr 20, The latest edition represents HEI's continuing program to update its standards to reflect the latest technological advancements in the field of For thermal and mechanical design and sizing of steam surface condensers based on heat transfer coefficients in accordance with HEI standards. This program Oct 1,
a surface condenser is used and the supply of water is limited. Types of condensers. The steam condensers are classified as follows: 1. Jet.
Surface condenser is the commonly used term for a water -cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from the steam turbines that drive the electrical generators in thermal power plants. In thermal power plants, the primary purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine at as low a pressure as possible and to obtain pure water referred to as steam condensate so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. The steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam to mechanical work.
The surface condenser is designed to condense and deaerate the exhaust steam from the main turbine and provide a heat sink for the turbine bypass system. In surface condensers, there is no direct contact between the exhaust steam and the cooling water. The exhausted steam from the LP turbines is condensed by passing over tubes containing water from the cooling system. The steam condenses when it comes in contact with the cold surface of the tubes and due to the heat transfer to cooling water by conduction and convection. These tubes are usually made of stainless steel, copper alloys, or titanium depending on several selection criteria such as thermal conductivity or corrosion resistance.
A steam condenser is a closed vessel in which steam is condensed by abstracting the heat by cooling it with water and where the pressure is maintained below atmospheric pressure. The condensed steam is known as condensate. The efficiency of the steam power plant is increased by the use of a condenser.
Generally, every large-scale industry consists of a power plant like a heat engine. The basic components of a power plant are boiler, turbine, condensers, cooling tower , etc, where each component has its individual functionality.
A surface condenser or steam condenser is a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger used to condensate the exhaust steam from the steam turbine in thermal power stations: the steam is converted from gaseous to liquid state at a pressure level below atmospheric pressure. The condensate can be re-used in the boiler: In surface condenser even impure water can be used for cooling purpose whereas in jet condensers cooling water must be pure. Although the capital cost and the space required is more in surface condensers but it is still preferred due to its low running cost and high thermal efficiency of plant. Surface condensers can be classified into varies types depending upon the position of condensate extraction pump, flow of condensate and arrangement of tubes. In these down flow condensers the exhaust steam travels downwards with cooling water flowing through the tubes in a 2-pass setup entering in one direction lower half and exiting out in the opposite direction in the upper half.
Табу Иуда, - произнес тот как ни в чем не бывало. Беккер посмотрел на него с недоумением. Панк сплюнул в проход, явно раздраженный невежеством собеседника. - Табу Иуда. Самый великий панк со времен Злого Сида. Ровно год назад он разбил здесь себе голову. Сегодня годовщина.
Но нутром он чувствовал, что это далеко не. Интуиция подсказывала ему, что в глубинах дешифровального чудовища происходит что-то необычное.
- Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру. В этом вся ее сущность. Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла. Он часто представлял, как занимается с ней сексом: прижимает ее к овальной поверхности ТРАНСТЕКСТА и берет прямо там, на теплом кафеле черного пола. Но Сьюзан не желала иметь с ним никакого дела.
Поскольку мы связаны с Интернетом, - объяснял Джабба, - хакеры, иностранные правительства и акулы Фонда электронных границ кружат вокруг банка данных двадцать четыре часа в сутки, пытаясь проникнуть внутрь. - Да, - сказал Фонтейн, - и двадцать четыре часа в сутки наши фильтры безопасности их туда не пускают. Так что вы хотите сказать. Джабба заглянул в распечатку. - Вот что я хочу сказать.
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