aircraft engines and gas turbines kerrebrock pdf creator

Aircraft engines and gas turbines kerrebrock pdf creator

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Cambridge illustrated glossary of botanical terms pdf creator

Magnetohydrodynamic drive

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Langford, M. February 1, January ; 1 : —

Cambridge illustrated glossary of botanical terms pdf creator

Year of fee payment : 4. Effective date : An internal combustion engine includes a slide body having a plurality of rigidly mounted pistons on opposite ends of the slide body. The slide body reciprocates and is connected to a flywheel by shaft and bearing which extends through an angled track in the slide body.

As the pistons impart linear movement to the slide body, the flywheel and a drive shaft rotate. Both the slide body and the flywheel are mounted on the interior of the engine. Magnets on the flywheel rotate relative to stationary coil conductors to induce a current. The housing includes four panels, which can be easily assembled and disassembled, which form a housing compartment in which the linearly movable slide piston subassembly and the rotating flywheel are positioned.

This invention also relates to internal combustion engines in which multiple pistons are joined as part of a rigid subassembly. This engine was first introduced in the late 's.

The horizontally opposed layout of the cylinders helped to balance out the forces exerted on the crankshaft by the moving pistons and the connecting rods, which connected each individual piston to a centrally mounted crankshaft. Although pistons were located on opposite sides of a central crankshaft, opposed pistons did not move along the same axis, and the four pistons moved along four parallel axes, which intersect the crankshaft at different lateral positions.

Unlike the present invention, each of the pistons comprised a separate member with its own connecting rod, which moves angularly relative to both the crankshaft and the piston. In this patent four cylinders are arranged in an H-shaped configuration. Two double acting or double-ended pistons, each with generally cylindrically shaped crowns on opposite sides of flat rectangular parallelepiped middle sections, are mounted on a crank shaft so that each double acting piston reciprocates in opposed cylinders.

The two double acting pistons, each of which is part of a one-piece member with piston crowns at either end, move in the same direction during each stroke, and circular slide blocks, eccentrically mounted on the crank shaft, are received in openings between the piston crowns to replace connecting rods. A dynamic balance slide piece reciprocates along an axis perpendicular to the piston reciprocation.

In this case, connecting rods rigidly connected to pistons at opposite ends are themselves interconnected by a cross bar. Anti-friction rollers mounted on a slide bar secured to the cross bar move with the double ended pistons and engage cams in the form of star shaped plates to impart rotation to a drive shaft.

The two doubled-ended pistons move in opposite directions. It has been suggested that internal combustion engines with double-ended pistons can also be used to produce an electrical current. In some small internal combustion engines and alternator often comprises a ring of magnets mounted on a rotating flywheel, which act in conjunction with stationary core and windings on the engine body.

Two examples of such devices are shown in U. The instant invention is believed to include many of the advantageous features represented by these examples of the prior art, but achieves these improvements by employing a configuration in which the components are easier to fabricate and in which assembly is simpler. The instant invention should therefore be easier to service since assembly and disassembly are more straightforward. The anticipated life and reliability of the engine constructed according to this invention should also be significantly greater than has heretofore been possible with more elaborate engine configurations.

Relative movement of component parts of this engine is believed to place less stress on moving parts, and these moving parts can be lubricated more efficiently and more effectively.

The efficiency that can be achieved with this inventive configuration is also believed to be superior to that which can be achieved with conventional internal combustion engine configurations. In view of the simplicity of the basic operation of this engine, excessive vibration should not be a problem.

In spite of the effort that has been expended to improve the performance of conventional internal combustion engine configurations, the piston slide body configuration of the instant invention should offer these and other advantages over these and other prior art configurations. According to one aspect of this invention, an internal combustion engine can include the following components. A housing encloses a compartment with opposed cylinders at opposite ends of the compartment for receiving pistons.

The pistons are on a slide body reciprocal in the housing compartment. The slide body has pistons at opposite ends of the slide body. Individual pistons are received within individual cylinders.

Cyclical combustion within the cylinders imparts linear reciprocal motion to the slide body. A rotating disk, which can be a flywheel, is positioned in the housing compartment. The rotating disk is located adjacent to the slide body and is rotatable about an axis generally perpendicular to linear reciprocal movement of the slide body.

Interengaging members on the slide body and rotating disk sufficiently laterally offset from the axis of rotation of the rotating disk impart rotary motion to the rotating disk as the slide body linearly reciprocates within the housing compartment. The assembly also includes a drive shaft extending through the housing. Rotation of the rotating disk is transmitted to the drive shaft so that linear motion of the slide piston is transmitted through the rotating disk to the drive shaft for delivering external power.

According to another aspect of this invention an internal combustion engine includes the following. Reciprocal pistons engage a rotary member to transfer linear motion of the pistons to rotary motion, the pistons being mounted in a housing including the following housing components. The engine includes an upper cover and a separate lower cover.

Side plates are attachable to and detachable from the upper cover and the lower cover adjacent opposite edges thereof to form a central housing subassembly having a generally rectangular cross section. A cylinder body can be attached to and detachable from one end of the central housing subassembly, the cylinder body including cylinders receiving the reciprocal pistons.

A head and valve subassembly is attachable to and detachable from the cylinder body and encloses one end of the cylinders. This internal combustion engine can be assembled and disassembled by respectively attaching and detaching the housing components in surrounding relationship to the reciprocal pistons and the rotary member. According to still another aspect of this invention, a piston subassembly for use in an internal combustion engine includes a central body including at least one arm extending from each end of the central body.

The piston subassembly also includes cylindrical pistons on the distal ends of each arm, the central body, the arms and the cylindrical pistons comprising a rigid body such that as the piston subassembly moves through a complete cycle, and no relative angular movement of the cylindrical pistons, the arms and the central body occurs.

The piston subassembly also includes an engagement surface on the central body, which engages a separate member during linear movement of the piston subassembly to impart rotary movement to the separate member to output energy due to combustion in the internal combustion engine. According to a fourth aspect of this invention, an internal combustion engine includes an electrical generator, which comprises a flywheel located within a nonferromagnetic engine housing.

The flywheel has a number of magnets attached thereto to increase the inertia of the flywheel and a plurality of electrical conductors located on the exterior of the nonferromagnetic engine housing. Rotation of the flywheel relative to the electrical conductors generates an electrical current in the electrical conductors. According to another aspect of this invention, an internal combustion engine includes a plurality of linearly reciprocal pistons, all of the pistons moving in the same direction during each stroke.

The internal combustion engine also includes a flywheel having an axis of rotation substantially perpendicular to the direction in which the pistons move.

The flywheel has sufficient angular momentum to dampen reaction forces acting in a direction opposite from the direction of movement of the pistons during sequential strokes due to the expansion of a combustible fuel-air mixture sequentially acting on individual pistons so that the internal combustion engine can be employed in a mobile vehicle, such as an automobile or other motor vehicle, and airplane, a lawnmower, off the road vehicles, and in many other applications.

A linear gear bearing can also be used to prevent any bureau drawer effect as the slide body piston reciprocates. Although not limited to a four stroke, two cycle internal combustion cycle, this invention will be described in terms of this representative configuration.

It should be understood that the basic invention can be adapted to other internal combustion cycles by one of ordinary skill in the art and that this invention can be implemented as different configurations, which would be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art. Some aspects of this invention are also suitable for use with apparatus other than an internal combustion engine. The preferred embodiment of the internal combustion engine 1 according to this invention has two primary internal moving parts located within a housing to deliver the power generated by the combustion of an air fuel mixture.

These internal moving parts are a slide body 50 , which reciprocates in a straight line, and a rotating disk, which preferably is in the form of a flywheel Both the slide body 50 and the rotating disk or flywheel 70 , are located within the same compartment 36 formed by a main housing The slide body 50 includes a plurality of pistons 56 A-D and the rotating disk or flywheel 70 is connected to an external drive shaft In the preferred embodiment, linear movement of the slide body 50 is transmitted to the flywheel 70 by engagement of a slide bearing or pin 72 located on the flywheel 70 with a track 62 located on the slide body Valves 92 and means for operating the valves are located in a valve-cam subassembly located at the ends of the main housing In the preferred embodiment an external valve shaft is rotated in response to linear movement of the slide body The engine 1 can be carbureted or fuel injected.

The engine 1 is cooled by an external electric water pump, which moves coolants throughout the engine 1. External mechanical oil and water pumps can also be used. The basic operation of a two stoke, four cycle engine in accordance with this invention can be understood with reference to FIGS. Starting with the slide body 50 and pistons in the position shown in FIG. During this movement, a fuel-air mixture in cylinder 42 A is compressed, while a fuel air mixture is drawn in by simultaneous movement of piston 56 D in the corresponding cylinder.

Piston 56 C expels the spent combustion products in that cylinder. When the slide body reaches the position shown in FIG. Compression, expansion, injection and expulsion then occur sequentially in each cylinder in the same fashion as in a conventional two stroke, four cycle engine.

The main housing 10 includes four main interlocked walls or parts 16 , 20 , 24 , 26 that can be fitted together with a minimum number of fasteners to simplify assembly and disassembly of the engine 1. One advantage of this engine is that the need for a majority of the head gaskets in conventional engines is eliminated and mating parts of this engine can be sealed with liquid sealants, such as silicone These four interlocked parts 16 , 20 , 24 , 26 surround the main housing compartment 36 in which the slide body 50 and the flywheel 70 are located.

Two cylinder bodies 40 A and 40 B are located at opposite ends of the main compartment A plurality of side by side cylinders 42 A-D communicate with the main housing compartment These cylinders 42 A-D extend through the cylinder bodies 40 A and 40 B, to the heads 90 A and 90 B, in which intake and outlet ports A and B for each cylinder are located, close the ends of the cylinders 42 A-D.

The mechanisms for opening and closing the valves are also located on these valve-cam plates In the preferred embodiment, valve-cam gears 94 driven by the external valve shaft are located on the valve plates In the preferred embodiment, multiple pistons are located on each end of the slide body. These pistons are rigidly connected as part of the slide body, and the pistons reciprocate within the cylinders without side forces between the pistons and the cylinders, thus causing only even, circular wear on the cylinders.

The slide body includes a central body, which reciprocates along a tongue and grooved or bearing tract relative to the housing side plates to insure that the slide body moves linearly without any significant angular movement. The housing 10 and other components will be discussed in greater detail after a more thorough description of the primary moving parts that translate the combustion of a fuel air mixture into usable external power. Combustion of fuel-air mixture in the cylinders 42 A-D causes expansion of the gas and forces the pistons 56 A-D outward during this expansion stroke.

The preferred embodiment is intended for use in a standard four cycle, two stroke engine, although the basic invention can be employed for two stroke engines, for Diesel engines or for other conventional internal combustion engine cycles.

The first embodiment of this invention includes four cylindrical, reciprocal pistons 56 A-D, two of which are located on each end of the slide body or slide body piston subassembly This invention is not limited to a four cylinder configuration and other configurations, and their characteristics, will be discussed in more detail after describing the representatives four cylinder embodiments.

The pistons 56 A-D are joined to the slide central body portion 60 by piston arms Piston arms 54 do not comprise a linkage permitting relative movement between the pistons 56 A-D and the central body portion 60 in the sense in which connecting rods form a movable linkage between pistons and the crankshaft of a conventional internal combustion engine.

The central body portion 60 , the pistons 56 A-D, and the arms 54 form the rigid slide body 50 , whose motion, in the housing compartment 36 , is essentially confined to linear movement parallel to the mutually parallel axes of rotation of the four cylindrical pistons 56 A-D.

Substantially no angular movement of the rigid slide body 50 relative to any of three orthogonal axes and especially with respect to the cylinders 42 will occur. Since the pistons 56 A-D move along coextensive axes of the pistons 56 A-D and the cylinders 42 A-D, with no side force exerted by rocking piston rods as in a conventional internal combustion engine, there will be relatively little wear on the rings or the cylinder walls Although the pistons 56 A-D and the arms 54 can be rigidly attached or fastened to each other and to the central body portion 60 , this rigid configuration lends itself to fabricating the slide body 50 as a one-piece member.

In the preferred embodiments, the slide body 50 will be die cast as a one-piece member.

Magnetohydrodynamic drive

A magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD accelerator is a method for propelling vehicles using only electric and magnetic fields with no moving parts , accelerating an electrically conductive propellant liquid or gas with magnetohydrodynamics. The fluid is directed to the rear and as a reaction , the vehicle accelerates forward. The first studies examining MHD in the field of marine propulsion date back to the early s. Few large-scale working prototypes have been built, as marine MHD propulsion remains impractical due to its low efficiency , limited by the low electrical conductivity of seawater. Increasing current density is limited by Joule heating and water electrolysis in the vicinity of electrodes , and increasing the magnetic field strength is limited by the cost, size and weight as well as technological limitations of electromagnets and the power available to feed them.

Effective date of abandoning : An engine has a crankshaft , rotating about a crankshaft axis of the engine An expansion piston is slidably received within an expansion cylinder and operatively connected to the crankshaft such that the expansion piston reciprocates through an expansion stroke and an exhaust stroke of a four stroke cycle during a single rotation of the crankshaft. A compression piston is slidably received within a compression cylinder and operatively connected to the crankshaft such that the compression piston reciprocates through an intake stroke and a compression stroke of the same four stroke cycle during the same rotation of the crankshaft A ratio of cylinder volumes from BDC to TDC for either one of the expansion cylinder and compression cylinder is substantially 20 to 1 or greater.

See search results for this author Are you an author? Learn about Author Central Jack L. Kerrebrock (Author) ebook creator; Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines.

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Australian National University. Word meaning has played a somewhat marginal role in early contemporary philosophy of language. While terms from different sources may pdf be similar in meaning. Cambridge U niversity Press.

A comprehensive review of the science and engineering behind future propulsion systems and energy sources in sustainable. Hybrid Systems and Multi-energy Networks for the Future Energy Internet provides the general concepts of hybrid systems. The Renewable Energy Landscape is a definitive guide to understanding, assessing, avoiding, and minimizing scenic impact.

CN102518508A - Split-cycle four-stroke engine - Google Patents

The Brayton cycle or Joule cycle represents the operation of a gas turbine engine. Figure 3. In practice, real Brayton cycles take one of two forms.

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Year of fee payment : 4. Effective date : An internal combustion engine includes a slide body having a plurality of rigidly mounted pistons on opposite ends of the slide body. The slide body reciprocates and is connected to a flywheel by shaft and bearing which extends through an angled track in the slide body.

From the request for proposal for a new aircraft to the final engine layout, the book provides the concepts and procedures required for the entire process. William D. Skira with Timothy J.

Беккер постарался придать своему испанскому тяжелый немецкий акцент: - Hola, hablas Aleman. - Нет, но я говорю по-английски, - последовал ответ. Беккер перешел на ломаный английский: - Спасибо. Не могли бы вы мне помочь. - О да, конечно, - медленно проговорила женщина, готовая прийти на помощь потенциальному клиенту.  - Вам нужна сопровождающая. - Да-да.

Magnetohydrodynamic drive

 - Пожалуйста. Через десять минут Беккер уже сидел в буфете АНБ, жуя сдобную булку и запивая ее клюквенным соком, в обществе очаровательной руководительницы Отделения криптографии АНБ. Ему сразу же стало ясно, что высокое положение в тридцать восемь лет в АНБ нельзя получить за красивые глаза: Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась одной из умнейших женщин, каких ему только доводилось встречать.


  • Fusberta H. 23.04.2021 at 03:28

    This chapter focuses on measurement techniques that have been used during experimental investigations of turbomachinery flow fields.

  • Adela H. 26.04.2021 at 17:21

    Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines [Kerrebrock, Jack L.] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines.


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