File Name: sartre existentialism and humanism .zip
Existential humanism is humanism that validates the human subject as struggling for self-knowledge and self-responsibility. Jean-Paul Sartre said " existentialism is a humanism " because it expresses the power of human beings to make freely-willed choices, independent of the influence of religion or society. Albert Camus , in his book The Plague , suggests that some of us may choose to be heroic, even knowing that it will bring us neither reward nor salvation; [ citation needed ] and Simone de Beauvoir , in her book The Ethics of Ambiguity , argues that embracing our own personal freedom requires us to fight for the freedoms of all humanity. Martin Heidegger attacked Sartre's concept of existential humanism in his Letter on Humanism of , accusing Sartre of elevating Reason above Being. Michel Foucault followed Heidegger in attacking Sartre's humanism as a kind of theology of man,  though in his emphasis on the self-creation of the human being he has in fact been seen as very close to Sartre's existential humanism.
The philosophical career of Jean Paul Sartre focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as existentialism. Adopting and adapting the methods of phenomenology, Sartre sets out to develop an ontological account of what it is to be human. The main features of this ontology are the groundlessness and radical freedom which characterize the human condition. These are contrasted with the unproblematic being of the world of things. So the unity of the self is understood as a task for the for-itself rather than as a given. Our only way to escape self-deception is authenticity, that is, choosing in a way which reveals the existence of the for-itself as both factual and transcendent.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre is one of the most important philosophers of all time. Despite his work garnering considerable flak over the years, his theories on existentialism and freedom cement his place among the most influential Western philosophers of the 20th-century and beyond. Born in Paris on June 21, , Sartre's early work focused on themes of existentialism as exemplified by his first novel Nausea and later the essay Existentialism and Humanism. After spending nine months as a German prisoner of war in , Jean-Paul Sartre began exploring the meaning of freedom and free will and in , he penned his principal philosophical work — Being and Nothingness: a phenomenological essay on ontology. Today, on Sartre's th birthday, we look at some of the key aspects of his philosophical contemplations. Jean-Paul Sartre believed that human beings live in constant anguish, not solely because life is miserable, but because we are 'condemned to be free'.
Page 1 of 14 | Sartre, EIH. Existentialism is a Humanism. Jean-Paul Sartre. My purpose here is to offer a defence of existentialism against several reproaches.
This essay examines the relations between existentialism and atheism, and argues that these are more complicated and multi-faceted than is often thought. Of the main nineteenth-century authors whose ideas prefigure existentialism—Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Kierkegaard—the last two are, explicitly, Christians. Even the twentieth-century existentialists who are well known for their positive atheism i.
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