File Name: anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages 2015 .zip
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The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal , pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did.
Biased cognition during high arousal states is a relevant phenomenon in a variety of topics: from the development of post-traumatic stress disorders or stress-triggered addictive behaviors to forensic considerations regarding crimes of passion. Existing findings appear inconsistent, therefore it is unclear whether and which type of context processing is disrupted by enhanced arousal. In this behavioral study, we investigated such arousal-triggered cognitive-state shifts in human subjects. In both paradigms, spatial location and sequences were encoded incidentally and both displacements when retrieving spatial position as well as the predictability of the target by a cue in sequence learning changed stepwise. Results showed that both implicit spatial and sequence learning were disrupted during high arousal states, regardless of valence. Compared to the control group, participants in the arousal conditions showed impaired discrimination of spatial positions and abolished learning of associative sequences.
Rumination — as a stable tendency to focus repetitively on feelings related to distress — represents a transdiagnostic risk factor. Theories suggest altered emotional information processing as the key mechanism of rumination. However, studies on the anticipation processes in relation to rumination are scarce, even though expectation in this process is demonstrated to influence the processing of emotional stimuli. In addition, no published study has investigated violated expectation in relation to rumination yet. Widespread brain activation — extending to temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes along with activation in the cingulate cortex, insula, and putamen — showed a positive correlation with rumination, supporting our hypothesis that trait rumination influences anticipatory processes. Interestingly, with violated expectation when an unexpected, non-painful stimulus follows a pain cue compared to when an expected, painful stimulus follows the same pain cue a negative association between rumination and activation was found in the posterior cingulate cortex, which is responsible for change detection in the environment and subsequent behavioral modification. Our results suggest that rumination is associated with increased neural response to pain perception and pain anticipation, and may deteriorate the identification of an unexpected omission of aversive stimuli.
American Journal of Psychiatry (9), , Anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages common and distinct neural.
Anticipation is a universal preparatory response essential to the survival of an organism. Although meta-analytic synthesis of the literature exists for the anticipation of reward, a neuroimaging-based meta-analysis of the neural mechanisms of aversive anticipation is lacking. To address this gap in the literature, we ran an activation likelihood estimate ALE meta-analysis of 63 fMRI studies of aversive anticipation across multiple sensory modalities. Results of the ALE meta-analysis provide evidence for a core circuit involved in aversive anticipation, including the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, mid-cingulate cortex, amygdala, thalamus, and caudate nucleus among other regions.
Fear is an emotion induced by perceived danger or threat , which causes physiological changes and ultimately behavioral changes, such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the threat. Fear in human beings may occur in response to a certain stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to oneself. In humans and other animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning. Thus, fear is judged as rational or appropriate and irrational or inappropriate.
During self-control, we may resist short-term temptations in order to reach a favorable future e. Here, we investigate the neural underpinnings of regulating cravings by mentally evoking the positive consequences of resisting a temptation e. It is conceivable that when using these types of strategies, regions associated with emotional processing [e. Thirty-one participants saw pictures of unhealthy snacks in the fMRI scanner and, depending on the trial, regulated their craving by thinking of the positive consequences of resisting, or the negative consequences of not resisting. In a control condition, they anticipated the pleasure of eating and thus, allowed the craving to occur now-condition.
Tsafrir Greenberg, Joshua M. The neural correlates of anxious anticipation have been primarily studied with aversive and neutral stimuli. In this study, we examined the effect of valence on anticipation by using high arousal aversive and positive stimuli and a condition of uncertainty i. Anticipation of all affective clips engaged common regions including the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, caudate, inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex that are associated with emotional experience, sustained attention and appraisal.
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Tsafrir Greenberg, Joshua M.Reply
Anticipation of all affective clips engaged common regions including the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, caudate.Reply
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Use of movies and narratives in neuroimaging studies of memory to resemble each other in the hippocampus and VMPFC (Milivojevic et al., ). This makes it possible to study engagement of attention in more genuine and Anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages.