# Demography and vital statistics pdf

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## Demography

Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education , nationality , religion , and ethnicity.

For example, the birth rate is an example of vital statistics and an investigation of trends in birth rates is an example of an application in the domain of vital statistics. There are various examples of vital statistics such as death rates, or the number of marriages, human population, etc. While reading this article, you will learn the meaning of vital statistics, what are the types and uses of vital statistics, and a brief note of the vital statistics system will be provided. Statistics, an agglomeration of numerical data, or simply the mathematical science that deals with the assortment, examining, and interpretation of numerical data through the use of the statistical theory of probability, specifically the tools and techniques that drive inferences regarding the features of the population via deciphering a random sample.

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Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education , nationality , religion , and ethnicity. Educational institutions [2] usually treat demography as a field of sociology , though there are a number of independent demography departments.

Patient demographics form the core of the data for any medical institution,such as patient and emergency contact information and patient medical record data. They allow for the identification of a patient and his categorization into categories for the purpose of statistical analysis. Patient demographics include: Date of birth , gender Ref: Google Health ,Date of death , postal code, ethnicity , blood type Ref: Microsoft HealthVault: Personal Demographic Information, Basic Demographic Information , Emergency contact information, family doctor, insurance provider data, Allergies , major diagnoses and major medical history.

Formal demography limits its object of study to the measurement of population processes, while the broader field of social demography or population studies also analyses the relationships between economic, social, cultural, and biological processes influencing a population.

Demographic thoughts traced back to antiquity, and were present in many civilisations and cultures, like Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , China and India. The term Demography refers to the overall study of population. In the Middle ages , Christian thinkers devoted much time in refuting the Classical ideas on demography.

One of the earliest demographic studies in the modern period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt , which contains a primitive form of life table. Among the study's findings were that one third of the children in London died before their sixteenth birthday. Mathematicians, such as Edmond Halley , developed the life table as the basis for life insurance mathematics. Malthus is seen as the intellectual father of ideas of overpopulation and the limits to growth.

Later, more sophisticated and realistic models were presented by Benjamin Gompertz and Verhulst. In , a Belgian scholar Achille Guillard defined demography as the natural and social history of human species or the mathematical knowledge of populations, of their general changes, and of their physical, civil, intellectual and moral condition.

The period can be characterised as a period of transition wherein demography emerged from statistics as a separate field of interest. There are two types of data collection—direct and indirect—with several different methods of each type.

Direct data comes from vital statistics registries that track all births and deaths as well as certain changes in legal status such as marriage, divorce, and migration registration of place of residence. In developed countries with good registration systems such as the United States and much of Europe , registry statistics are the best method for estimating the number of births and deaths.

A census is the other common direct method of collecting demographic data. A census is usually conducted by a national government and attempts to enumerate every person in a country. In contrast to vital statistics data, which are typically collected continuously and summarized on an annual basis, censuses typically occur only every 10 years or so, and thus are not usually the best source of data on births and deaths. Analyses are conducted after a census to estimate how much over or undercounting took place.

These compare the sex ratios from the census data to those estimated from natural values and mortality data. Censuses do more than just count people. They may also collect data on migration or place of birth or of previous residence , language, religion, nationality or ethnicity or race , and citizenship.

In countries in which the vital registration system may be incomplete, the censuses are also used as a direct source of information about fertility and mortality; for example the censuses of the People's Republic of China gather information on births and deaths that occurred in the 18 months immediately preceding the census. Indirect methods of collecting data are required in countries and periods where full data are not available, such as is the case in much of the developing world, and most of historical demography.

One of these techniques in contemporary demography is the sister method, where survey researchers ask women how many of their sisters have died or had children and at what age. With these surveys, researchers can then indirectly estimate birth or death rates for the entire population. Other indirect methods in contemporary demography include asking people about siblings, parents, and children.

Other indirect methods are necessary in historical demography. There are a variety of demographic methods for modelling population processes. They include models of mortality including the life table , Gompertz models , hazards models , Cox proportional hazards models , multiple decrement life tables , Brass relational logits , fertility Hernes model , Coale -Trussell models, parity progression ratios , marriage Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model , disability Sullivan's method , multistate life tables , population projections Lee-Carter model , the Leslie Matrix , and population momentum Keyfitz.

The United Kingdom has a series of four national birth cohort studies, the first three spaced apart by 12 years: the National Survey of Health and Development, the National Child Development Study , [15] the British Cohort Study , [16] and the Millennium Cohort Study , begun much more recently in These have followed the lives of samples of people typically beginning with around 17, in each study for many years, and are still continuing.

As the samples have been drawn in a nationally representative way, inferences can be drawn from these studies about the differences between four distinct generations of British people in terms of their health, education, attitudes, childbearing and employment patterns.

A stable population does not necessarily remain fixed in size. It can be expanding or shrinking. Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population can give a misleading impression. For example, the number of deaths per 1, people can be higher for developed nations than in less-developed countries, despite standards of health being better in developed countries.

This is because developed countries have proportionally more older people, who are more likely to die in a given year, so that the overall mortality rate can be higher even if the mortality rate at any given age is lower. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table , which summarizes mortality separately at each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy. Suppose that a country or other entity contains Population t persons at time t.

These basic equations can also be applied to subpopulations. For example, the population size of ethnic groups or nationalities within a given society or country is subject to the same sources of change. When dealing with ethnic groups, however, "net migration" might have to be subdivided into physical migration and ethnic reidentification assimilation. Individuals who change their ethnic self-labels or whose ethnic classification in government statistics changes over time may be thought of as migrating or moving from one population subcategory to another.

More generally, while the basic demographic equation holds true by definition, in practice the recording and counting of events births, deaths, immigration, emigration and the enumeration of the total population size are subject to error.

So allowance needs to be made for error in the underlying statistics when any accounting of population size or change is made. Populations can change through three processes: fertility, mortality, and migration.

Fertility involves the number of children that women have and is to be contrasted with fecundity a woman's childbearing potential. Demographers most commonly study mortality using the Life Table , a statistical device that provides information about the mortality conditions most notably the life expectancy in the population.

Migration refers to the movement of persons from a locality of origin to a destination place across some predefined, political boundary. Migration researchers do not designate movements 'migrations' unless they are somewhat permanent. Thus demographers do not consider tourists and travellers to be migrating.

While demographers who study migration typically do so through census data on place of residence, indirect sources of data including tax forms and labour force surveys are also important. Demography is today widely taught in many universities across the world, attracting students with initial training in social sciences, statistics or health studies.

Being at the crossroads of several disciplines such as sociology , economics , epidemiology , geography , anthropology and history , demography offers tools to approach a large range of population issues by combining a more technical quantitative approach that represents the core of the discipline with many other methods borrowed from social or other sciences.

Demographic research is conducted in universities, in research institutes as well as in statistical departments and in several international agencies. Population institutions are part of the Cicred International Committee for Coordination of Demographic Research network while most individual scientists engaged in demographic research are members of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population , [24] or a national association such as the Population Association of America in the United States, [25] or affiliates of the Federation of Canadian Demographers in Canada.

For the album by 16 Volt, see Demography album. The science that deals with populations and their structures, statistically and theoretically. Historical perspectives. Conflict theory Structural functionalism Positivism Social constructionism. It has been suggested that Demographic analysis be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since February This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 4 August Srivastava, Studies in Demography , p. June Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.

Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Retrieved 19 September Encyclopedia of the City. Dutch statisticians, actuaries and medical doctors and the methods of demography in the time of Wilhelm Lexis. International Journal of Epidemiology. Anderson and Brian D. Archived from the original PDF on 16 December Retrieved Studies in Family Planning, Vol. Rowland Demographic Methods and Concepts Ch. Social sciences.

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Demography , statistical study of human populations, especially with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics births, marriages, deaths, etc. For a discussion of the objects of demographic study, see population in biology and physical anthropology. See also census. The roots of statistical demography may be found in the work of the Englishman John Graunt; his work Natural and Political Observations. In search of statistical regularities, Graunt made an estimate of the male-female ratios at birth and death-birth ratios in London and rural communities. His most celebrated contribution was his construction of the first mortality table; by analyzing birth and death rates he was able to estimate roughly the number of men currently of military age, the number of women of childbearing age, the total number of families, and even the population of London. In 18th-century Europe, the development of life insurance and growing attention to public health produced an increased awareness of the significance of mortality studies.

This book by Libby Schweber continues a long tradition of studies of the birth of statistical thought and practice and its relationship to political representation and action. The purpose of this approach, also followed by Libby Schweber, is to build a comparative history of a scientific area which lies at the crossroads of the social, mathematical, and even physical sciences and the science of State administration. This is social and political history rather than simply the internal history of science. Most users should sign in with their email address.

Read terms. ABSTRACT: Information from vital records is critical to identify and quantify health-related issues and to measure progress toward quality improvement and public health goals. In particular, maternal and infant mortality serve as important indicators of the nation's health, thereby influencing policy development, funding of programs and research, and measures of health care quality.

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### Demography

After reading this article you will learn about the meaning and uses of Vital Statistics. Vital statistics, also known as vital events or vital records, are an important source of demographic data. They explain statistically such events as births, deaths, marriages, divorces, etc. According to N. But in underdeveloped countries due to mass illiteracy and ignorance, the registration of births, deaths, marriages, migration, etc. However, in the majority of developing countries and in all developed countries registration of vital events like births, deaths, marriages, divorces, migrations, etc.

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• #### Stefanie N. 17.04.2021 at 18:45

vital statistics, as well as his conclusions as to the impli- cations to be drawn from them, are still models for workers in the fields of public health and demography.

• #### Ramsuicaki1987 21.04.2021 at 17:17

complementary sources of vital statistics, such as population censuses, household surveys and (). Available from rcthi.org​Education/Documents/rcthi.org sable tools in public health and demography.

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