antioxidants and disease prevention pdf

Antioxidants and disease prevention pdf

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Published: 16.04.2021

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Role of ROS and Nutritional Antioxidants in Human Diseases

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We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. The sources of antioxidants can be natural or artificial.

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Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are antioxidants? Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy. Free radicals are also formed after exercising or exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations.

Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals , thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid vitamin C terminate these chain reactions. To balance the oxidative stress , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes e. The term "antioxidant" is mostly used for two entirely different groups of substances: industrial chemicals that are added to products to prevent oxidation, and naturally occurring compounds that are present in foods and tissue. The former, industrial antioxidants, have diverse uses: acting as preservatives in food and cosmetics, and being oxidation -inhibitors in rubber, synthetic plastics, and fuels. Antioxidant dietary supplements have not been shown to improve health in humans, or to be effective at preventing disease.

Role of ROS and Nutritional Antioxidants in Human Diseases

Free radicals are produced continuously in the cells as part of normal cellular function, however excess production might play a role in pathophysiology of many disease conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and some of the drug-induced toxicity. Many basic research studies and observational epidemiologic studies in human suggest that antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. However, this is still a controversial issue because the results of clinical trials have been inconsistent. This article provides a brief overview of some of the diseases which are associated with free radicals, then discusses the roles of some of dietary antioxidant supplements in disease prevention, with particular reference to the findings of latest clinical trials. Oxygen is an indispensable element for life.

Oxidative stress is generated by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species ROS and antioxidants. An excess of ROS leads to the degradation of lipids, proteins, and DNA and thus may lead to oxidative damage to cells and, in consequence, to the overexpression of oncogenes, mutagen formation, the induction of atherogenic activity, or inflammation. Oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, cancer, immune disorders, diabetes, aging, and others. Plants, especially dietary fruits and vegetables, are a rich source of antioxidants. It is postulated that antioxidants produce health benefits through the direct reduction of oxidative stress. In the body, the antioxidant network works in concert through several different mechanisms: ROS scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and the inhibition or chelation of metals. However, our understanding of the specific role and mechanisms of the action of certain antioxidants is still in infancy.


PDF | Free radicals are produced continuously in the cells as part of Keywords: Free radicals; Antioxidants; Disease prevention; Clinical trials.


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Author s : Patrizia Mecocci , E. Mariani , M. Polidori , K. Hensley , D.

Antioxidant

The overproduction of reactive oxygen species ROS has been implicated in the development of various chronic and degenerative diseases such as cancer, respiratory, neurodegenerative, and digestive diseases. Under physiological conditions, the concentrations of ROS are subtlety regulated by antioxidants, which can be either generated endogenously or externally supplemented.

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There is no doubt that successful prevention is the key to controlling morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases affecting humankind. Prevention provides: the methods to avoid occurrence of disease and most population-based health promotion efforts are of this type; methods to diagnose and treat extant disease in early stages before it causes significant morbidity; methods to reduce negative impact of extant disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications; and finally, the methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions in the health system. The quality and quantity of diet with respect to the intake of fresh food fruits, seeds and vegetables may improve our health and consequently decrease the risk of any disease. However, it is worthy to mention that these compounds are involved in other functions a part from being antioxidant nutrients. Selenium Se , a trace mineral. Is the 34 th element and is located between sulfur and tellurium in Group 16 in the periodic table.

Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are antioxidants? Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy.

Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases.

3 comments

  • Blas S. 18.04.2021 at 19:28

    Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

    Reply
  • Spencer T. 19.04.2021 at 14:38

    We include products we think are useful for our readers.

    Reply
  • Egeo B. 24.04.2021 at 10:17

    Abstract. Antioxidants play important role in the prevention of free radical formation and helps in reducing various disorders such as cancer, aging, cardiovascular.

    Reply

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