File Name: edible and medicinal mushrooms .zip
Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine.
In his spare time he pursues an interest in paleopathology and the study of medical systems of ancient Egypt. He is married to Evelyn and has two daughters and a son, and nine grandchildren. He is currently a lecturer in the Department of Bioscience graded 5 in the recent National Research exercise at the University of Strathclyde.
He has authored or co- authored 25 research papers that have appeared in internationally-assessed Journals. His current research interests encompass the fields of Biomedical and Food Microbiology, including studies on the detection of microbial pathogens in foods for susceptible groups, the virulence properties of food-borne pathogens, and on resources that can be used to control the occurrence and transmission of food- borne pathogens.
He has carried out considerable research in the area of Food Mycology, particularly studies on the axenic culture and growth of exotic mushrooms. He is married to Michelle and has a daughter and a son. Acknowledgements We are indebted to so many national and international colleagues for sending important information for this Report. For allowing us to reproduce many excellent photographs from ISBN We are especially indebted to Elizabeth Clements for her excellent typographical and organisational skills, and remarkable patience during the preparation of the text of this Report.
Less well-recognised but of great clinical importance are the widely used drugs from fungi such as the antibiotics, penicillin and griseofulvin, the ergot alkaloids and cyclosporin. During the last two decades there has been an increasing recognition of the role of the human immune system for maintaining good health. Historically, the larger fungi, the mushrooms, have had a long and successful medicinal use especially in traditional Chinese clinical medicine for many forms of immune disorders.
Chinese Pharmacopeias document the use of well over species of mushroom by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine, for a wide range of ailments. Many of these mushroom-derived medicinal products are now produced by major Japanese, Korean and Chinese pharmaceutical companies.
Many of these products are being used worldwide by holistically oriented physicians, chiropractors, herbalists and naturopathic physicians in a clinical environment. To date, Western, medicine has made little use of these products in part due to their complex structure and lack of acceptable pharmaceutical purity.
Mushrooms are not a taxonomic group but do include well over 12, species which have macroscopic fruit-bodies, the mushrooms, which are large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Increasingly, many are being viewed nutritionally as functional foods as well as a source of physiologically beneficial and non-invasive medicines, while others are distinctly non-edible but considered purely as a source of medicinally beneficial compounds. Some of the most recently isolated and identified compounds originating from the medicinal mushrooms have shown promising immunomodulatory, antitumour, cardiovascular, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic properties.
Modern scientific studies of the medicinal mushrooms have expanded exponentially during the last two decades primarily in Japan, Korea and China but also in the USA and scientific explanations of how these compounds function in the animal and human systems are increasingly appearing in peer-reviewed scientific and medical journals.
Mushroom-derived polysaccharides are now considered as compounds which are able to modulate animal and human immune responses and to inhibit certain tumour growths. While mushroom glucans are mostly non-cytotoxic, the same is not true of glucan-protein complexes.
Also, they can be considered as multi-cytokine inducers able to induce gene expression of various immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. However, for most of the mushroom-derived anti-cancer compounds, a detailed understanding of their exact mode of action has not yet been elucidated. While many mushroom-polysaccharides have been shown to have considerable antitumour activity in several xenographs only a limited number have undergone clinical trials.
At present the main products submitted for clinical testing include Lentinan from Lentinus edodes fruit-bodies, Schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune mycelial broth, PSK and PSP, from mycelial cultures of Trametes versicolor and Grifron-D from fruit-bodies of Grifola frondosa. However, in many cases the standards of these trials may not meet current Western regulatory requirements.
In many cases there have been significant improvements in quality of life and survival. Increasingly, several of these compounds are now used extensively in Japan, Korea and China, as adjuncts to standard radio- and chemotherapy. While most of these clinical studies have used extracts from individual medicinal mushrooms, some recent studies from Japan have shown that mixtures of extracts from several known medicinal mushrooms, when taken as a supplement, have shown beneficial effects on the quality of life for some advanced cancer patients.
The safety criteria for the mushroom polysaccharides have been exhaustively studied with little evidence of any toxicity. In Phase I clinical trials, these compounds demonstrate remarkably few adverse reactions. Clinical efficacy of the mushroom polysaccharides will depend on understanding their precise scope of activity verifiable through in vitro and in vivo animal and tissue culture tests and human clinical trials, dose range, extraction methods, source and purity of the raw fungal material, duration and frequency of administration, and accuracy in matching the extracts to each particular patient based on traditional and modern diagnostic methods.
This Report, originally commissioned by the Cancer Research Campaign, aims to give a detailed and comprehensive appreciation of this complex area, derived from Oriental and Western literature together with the practical experience of the authors.
It is to be hoped that Western oncologists will now have the opportunity to assess this area of cancer treatment and to judge whether it will have a realistic role in Western cancer research programmes. Finally, from a holistic consideration, the consumption of whole edible medicinal mushrooms or extracts or concentrates dietary supplements may well offer novel, highly palatable, nutritious and health benefiting ingredients to the Western diet as functional foods.
This literature study commissioned by the Cancer Research Campaign in November , entailed searching computerized databases of published literature e. Many original and peer-reviewed papers were obtained from the Document Supply Centre of British Library Net and scanning reference lists of appropriate review articles, books and other relevant publications including symposia and conference proceedings.
Consultations were achieved with key informants in the field, nationally and internationally. In addition to writing to many internationally-leading scientists in this field, Prof Smith spoke to a number of these scientists at an international conference held recently in Kiev where he presented an invited paper on this particular topic. However, while most of the aforementioned strategies proved successful, we were disappointed at the lack of response from some key scientific and medical centres in China and Japan who have specialised knowledge in this particular field.
We believe that this seminal literature study does contain the best up to date information on the therapeutic properties and current medical usage of medicinal mushrooms with special emphasis given on cancer treatment. It is proposed that the critical information in this report will be used to write reviews for appropriate journals.
As a closing qualifying remark, while every effort was made to ensure that the best-published-data was gathered on the aforementioned, it must be appreciated that this particular field is enormous and a limited number of interesting papers may have been missed. Scientific evidence supports the view that diet controls and modulates many functions of the human body and, accordingly, participates in the maintenance of the state of good health or homeostasis.
Arising from this awareness of the relationship between diet and disease has evolved the concept of functional foods and the development of functional food science. Foods as medicine underpins the paradigm of functional foods.
The primary objectives of functional food science are to maintain good health, improve homeostasis and to create the conditions for disease reduction. It is seen to be quite distinct from the medical and pharmaceutical sciences where the objectives are mainly to cure or control diseases. Mushrooms have long been valued as highly flavoursome and nutritional foods by many societies.
In the Orient, there has long been the recognition that certain edible and non-edible mushrooms can have profound health benefits.
When used as tonics the medicinal mushrooms are consumed whole or preferably as concentrated extracts and act as dietary supplements. A limited number of highly purified compounds derived from certain medicinal mushrooms are now being used in the Orient and the US as pharmaceutical- grade products in medicine — especially, but not exclusively, for cancer treatment. Mycology is concerned with the study of the fungi, the term being derived from the Greek word mykes. They are heterotrophic, requiring organic carbon compounds of varying degrees of complexity for growth and reproduction.
Most fungi exist as microscopic filaments or hyphae which form a complex mycelium or network. In some cases the mycelia form large complicated structures as exemplified in the mushrooms.
The use of psychotropic mushrooms by man dates far back into antiquity with the earliest records dating back to Palaeolithic times. There is an extensive literature implicating certain mushrooms in ancient religious beliefs and practices. Consistent production of successful mushroom crops is built upon scientific knowledge and practical experience.
To date about 35 mushroom species have been cultivated commercially with about 20 cultivated on an industrial scale. Most of these species are both edible and possess medicinal properties.
Mushroom cultivation involves several different operations each of which must be performed accurately if the enterprise is to be successful, viz. Mycelium production by liquid tank fermentation is now increasingly being used for the production of more uniform medicinal products.
The ability to use pure substrates and controlled growth environments will aid in the final purity of the products. The practice of using fungi, especially mushrooms, in Chinese Traditional Medicine TCM , dates back into antiquity and has been recorded in ancient Chinese manuscripts.
Increased scientific and medical research in recent decades, especially in Japan, Korea and China and more recently US, is confirming efficacy and identifying the bioactive molecules. Ganoderma lucidum Reishi or Ling Zhi , Lentinus Lentinula edodes Shiitake , Phellinus linteus, Porio cocos, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa Maitake , Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus Oyster mushroom , Trametes Coriolus versicolor, Tremella fuciformis, Schizophyllum commune and the non- mushroom Cordyceps sinensis the caterpillar fungus.
Recent improvements in chemical technology have allowed the isolation and purification of the relevant compounds especially the polysaccharides which contain demonstrable anti-cancer activities. Most appear to act as immune system enhancers though some can have direct cytotoxic effects on cancer cells.
Only a small number have progressed successfully to objective clinical assessment in trials. Some are orally bioavailable. Methods of extraction and purification of the various polysaccharides are now well worked out. Compounds from other medicinal mushrooms with proven anti-cancer properties have been studied in pre-clinical models and will increasingly be submitted for clinical trials. Mushroom-derived glucan and polysaccharo-peptides can act as immunomodulators.
They can also be considered as multi-cytokine inducers able to induce gene expression of various immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. Lentinan and Schizophyllan are T-cell oriented immunopotentiators and require a functional T-cell component for biological activity by way of increasing helper T-cell production, increased macrophage production leading to a stimulation of acute phase proteins and colony stimulating factors which in turn affect proliferation of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and activation of the complement system.
PSK and PSP are potent immunostimulators with specific activity for T-cells and for antigen-presenting cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Their biological activity is characterised by their ability to increase white blood cell counts, interferon-y and interleukin-2 production and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. These studies strongly suggest an immunomodulating mode of action.
However, in in vitro studies on various cancer cell lines, there is strong evidence for direct cytotoxic effects on the cancer cells for some, but not all, of the polysaccharides. While all of the proprietary mushroom polysaccharides successfully used in animal and human cancer treatments are effective by i.
Lentinan L. Lentinan has been approved as a drug in Japan and is considered an important adjuvant treatment for several cancers. Schizophyllan S. Neither of these compounds show any significant side-effects. Results to date are promising.
This beautifully illustrated guidebook provides specific, easy-to-understand information on finding,. Author David Spahr, a trained commercial photographer, here combines his mycological expertise and photographic skill to produce an attractive and detailed overview of his subject. Based on decades of practical experience and research, the book is written in a clear and forthright style that avoids the dry, generic descriptions of most field guides. Rather than simply providing recipes, the book discusses the cooking characteristics of each variety, with advice about matching species with appropriate foods. Many mushrooms contain unique medicinal components for boosting the immune system to fight cancer, HIV, and other diseases, and Spahr offers practical and prudent guidelines for exploration of this rapidly emerging area of alternative therapeutic practice. Short-link Link Embed. Share from cover.
In Burundi, minimum work has been done to comprehensively identify and commercialize high yielding local mushrooms. The previous studies carried out on mushroom cultivation have focused on exotic strains. This is the first study undertaken on domestication of wild edible mushrooms from Burundi indigenous forests. Nine samples were collected from four protected areas and characterized using phenotypic and molecular markers. Germoplasm isolation through tissue culture techniques, spawn production and cultivation studies were also undertaken.
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By clicking register, I agree to your terms. All rights reserved. Design by w3layouts. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines.
There are about species of mushrooms, which have a high amount of substances that are beneficial to human health, such as antioxidants. It is well known that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and diseases of the central nervous system. One way to prevent homeostasis disorders that occur as a result of excessive production of pro-oxidative substances is to include the ingredients having antioxidant properties in the diet. Several compounds, such as those with phenolic and indole derivatives as well as carotenoids and some vitamins, exhibit antioxidant activity. These substances are present in many foods, including mushrooms.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Li and Cg Lin and Q. Tian and Q. Zhao and X. Xiao and K. Hyde and S.
Включился звук, и послышался фоновой шум. - Установлена аудиосвязь. Через пять секунд она станет двусторонней. - Кто это такие? - переминаясь с ноги на ногу, спросил Бринкерхофф. - Всевидящее око, - сказал Фонтейн, вглядываясь в лица людей, которых он отправил в Испанию. Это была вынужденная мера. Фонтейн почти во всем полагался на Стратмора и верил в его план, в том числе и в достойную сожаления, но неизбежную необходимость устранять Энсея Танкадо и в переделку Цифровой крепости, - все это было правильно.