File Name: defining adipose tissue-derived stem cells in tissue and in culture .zip
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells ASC are showing clinical promise for the treatment of a range of inflammatory and degenerative conditions.
In , researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, described the isolation of a new population of adult stem cells from liposuctioned adipose tissue. These stem cells, now known as adipose-derived stem cells or ADSCs, have gone on to become one of the most popular adult stem cells populations in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. As of today, thousands of research and clinical articles have been published using ASCs, describing their possible pluripotency in vitro, their uses in regenerative animal models, and their application to the clinic. This paper outlines the progress made in the ASC field since their initial description in , describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo, their use in mediating inflammation and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and their potential for reprogramming into induced pluripotent cells.
Stem cells are a special type of cell, which can be found in almost all types of tissue and through the entire life span of multicellular organisms. Their main function is to provide tissue development, homeostasis and to repair tissue damage. Quick jump to page content. Home Archives Vol. Published: Sep 20,
Recent development in stem cell isolation methods and expansion under laboratory conditions create an opportunity to use those aforementioned cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Particular attention is drawn towards mesenchymal stem cells MSCs being multipotent progenitors exhibiting several unique characteristics, including high proliferation potential, self-renewal abilities and multilineage differentiation into cells of mesodermal and non-mesodermal origin. High abundance of MSCs found in adipose tissue makes it a very attractive source of adult stem cells for further use in regenerative medicine applications. Despite immunomodulating properties of adipose-derived stem cells ASCs and a secretion of a wide variety of paracrine factors that facilitate tissue regeneration, effectiveness of stem cell therapy was not supported by the results of clinical trials. Lack of a single, universal stem cell marker, patient-to-patient variability, heterogeneity of ASC population combined with multiple widely different protocols of cell isolation and expansion hinder the ability to precisely identify and analyze biological properties of stem cells. The above issues contribute to conflicting data reported in literature. We will review the comprehensive information concerning characteristic features of ASCs.
In the recent years, adipose derived stem cells ASCs led to significant findings in the field of regenerative therapy. ASCs have various biological properties and capacity as differentiation in three lineages chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes or immunomodulation by releasing paracrine factors. Osteoarthritis OA is the most frequent osteoarticular disease characterized by none curative treatment. Mesenchymal stromal cells MSCs can be isolated from a large number of tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue or umbilical cord [ 1 ], [ 2 ]. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells ASCs share similar properties with bone marrow-derived MSCs but are easier to collect for clinical application with higher isolation yields. They are able to differentiate into mesodermal lineages osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes [ 4 ] and to exhibit immunosuppressive as well as healing capacities, through the secretion of paracrine mediators [ 5 ]. This led to the development of innovative strategies for the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases [ 6 ].
Adipose tissue has long been considered an energy storage and endocrine organ; however, in recent decades, this tissue has also been considered an abundant source of mesenchymal cells. Adipose-derived stem cells are easily obtained, show a strong capacity for ex vivo expansion and differentiation to other cell types, release a large variety of angiogenic factors, and have immunomodulatory properties. Thus, adipose tissue is currently the focus of considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine. In the context of coronary heart disease, numerous experimental studies have supported the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells in the setting of myocardial infarction. These results have encouraged the clinical use of these stem cells, possibly prematurely.
Request PDF | Defining adipose tissue-derived stem cells in tissue and in culture | Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are routinely isolated from the.
Manuscripts that exploit pharmacological, physiopathological and diagnostic aspects related to percutaneous intervention in cardiovascular diseases are also considered for publication. Although other disciplines present aspects somehow related to this specialty, it is not the intention of RBCI to publish manuscripts related to electrophysiology or to heart surgery. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field.
Metrics details. Adipose-derived stem cells ADSCs have raised big interest in therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and appear to fulfill the criteria for a successful cell therapy. Their low immunogenicity and their ability to self-renew, to differentiate into different tissue-specific progenitors, to migrate into damaged sites, and to act through autocrine and paracrine pathways have been altogether testified as the main mechanisms whereby cell repair and regeneration occur. Also, comparisons across pooled patients are particularly difficult in the fact that multiple medical devices are used and there is absence of harmonized assessment assays despite meeting regulations agencies and efficient GMP protocols. Moreover, the emergence of the COVID breakdown added to the complexity of implementing standardization.
Protocol DOI: Over the last decade, cell therapy has emerged as a potentially new approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Among the wide range of cell types and sources, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promise, mainly due to its. Among the wide range of cell types and sources, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promise, mainly due to its plasticity and remarkable paracrine-secretion capacity, largely demonstrated at the in vitro and in vivo levels.
Adipose tissue is now on the top one of stem cell sources regarding its accessibility, abundance, and less painful collection procedure when compared to other sources. The adipose derived stem cells ADSCs that it contains can be maintained and expanded in culture for long periods of time without losing their differentiation capacity, leading to large cell quantities being increasingly used in cell therapy purposes. Many reports showed that ADSCs-based cell therapy products demonstrated optimal efficacy and efficiency in some clinical indications for both autologous and allogeneic purposes, hence becoming considered as potential tools for replacing, repairing, and regenerating dead or damaged cells. In this review, we analyzed the therapeutic advancement of ADSCs in comparison to bone marrow BM and umbilical cord UC -mesenchymal stem cells MSCs and designed the specific requirements to their best clinical practices and safety. Our analysis was focused on the ADSCs, rather than the whole stromal vascular fraction SVF cell populations, to facilitate characterization that is related to their source of origins. Clinical outcomes improvement suggested that these cells hold great promise in stem cell-based therapies in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and auto-immunes diseases. These ADSCs possess adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, cardiogenic, and neurogenic potential in vitro [ 3 , 4 ], and this plasticity and multipotency have triggered much related research in recent years.
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