File Name: a companion to greek and roman historiography file.zip
Roman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans relied on previous models in the Greek tradition such as the works of Herodotus c. Roman historiographical forms are usually different from their Greek counterparts, however, and often emphasize Roman concerns. The Roman style of history was based on the way that the Annals of the Pontifex Maximus , or the Annales Maximi , were recorded. The Annales Maximi include a wide array of information, including religious documents, names of consuls, deaths of priests, and various disasters throughout history.
Contemporary Greek historians such as Polybius wrote about the rise of Rome during its conquest of Greece and ascension as the primary power of the Mediterranean in the 2nd century BC. Moving away from the annalist tradition, Roman historians of the 1st century BC such as Sallust , Livy , and even Julius Caesar wrote their works in a much fuller narrative form. While Caesar's De Bello Gallico focused specifically on his wars in Gaul , Roman works that served as a broad universal history often placed heavy emphasis on the origin myth of the founding of Rome as a starting point.
These works formed the basis of the Roman historiographic models utilized by later Imperial authors of the Principate era, such as Tacitus and Suetonius. Before the second Punic war , there was no historiography in Rome; but the clash of civilisations it involved proved a potent stimulus to historiography, which was taken up by the two senators and participants in the war , Quintus Fabius Pictor and Lucius Cincius Alimentus , who may be considered the "Founders" of Roman Historiography.
Fabius Pictor wrote a history of Rome in Greek, not Latin. This choice of writing about the war in Greek arose from a need to address the Greeks and counter another author, Timaeus , who also wrote a history of Rome until the Second Punic War. Timaeus wrote with a negative view of Rome. Therefore, in defense of the Roman state, Q. Fabius Pictor wrote in Greek, using Olympiad dating and a Hellenistic style. Fabius Pictor's style of writing history defending the Roman state and its actions, and using propaganda heavily, eventually became a defining characteristic of Roman historiography, while he is also known for the establishment of the "ab urbe condita" tradition of historiography which is writing history "from the founding of the city".
Cincius also wrote in Greek, but seems to have been less esteemed by later historians:  thus for the Battle of Lake Trasimene , Livy states that he "has accepted Fabius as my main source, since he was contemporary with this war", whereas earlier, on the question of Hannibal's numbers, he says that "the most authoritative account should be that of Lucius Cincius Alimentus After Q.
Fabius Pictor wrote, many other authors followed his lead, inspired by the new literary form: Gaius Acilius , Aulus Postumius Albinus , and Cato the Elder. Cato the Elder is credited as the first historian to write in Latin. His work, the Origines , was written to teach Romans what it means to be Roman. Like Q. Fabius Pictor, Cato the Elder wrote ab urbe condita, and the early history is filled with legends illustrating Roman virtues.
The Origines also spoke of how not only Rome, but the other Italian towns were venerable, and that the Romans were indeed superior to the Greeks.
The Romans enjoyed serious endeavors and so the writing of historiography became very popular for upper class citizens who wanted to spend their time on worthwhile, virtuous, "Roman" activities. As idleness was looked down upon by the Romans, writing history became an acceptable way to spend retirement. Almost as soon as historiography started being used by the Romans, it split into two traditions: the annalistic tradition and the monographic tradition.
The authors who used the Annalistic tradition wrote histories year-by-year, from the beginning, which was most frequently from the founding of the city, usually up until the time that they were living in. Monographs are more similar to present-day history books: they are usually on a single topic, but most importantly, they do not tell history from the beginning, and they are not even necessarily annalistic.
An important sub category that emerged from the monographic tradition was the biography. Often, especially in times of political unrest or social turmoil, historians re-wrote history to suit their particular views of the age. So, there were many different historians each rewriting history a little bit to bolster their case.
This was especially evident in the 70s BC when the social wars were going on between the populists led by Marius , and the senatorials led by Sulla. Several authors wrote histories during this time, each taking a side.
Gaius Licinius Macer was anti-Sullan and wrote his history, based on Gnaeus Gellius in 16 books, from the founding of the city until the 3rd century BC, whereas Valerius Antias who was pro-Sulla, wrote a history in 75 books, from the founding of the city until 91 BC: both were used subsequently by Livy to create a more evenly balanced account.
The historiography we most readily identify with the Romans, coming from sources such as Caesar , Sallust , Livy , Tacitus , and other minor authors, owes much to its early roots and Greek predecessors. However, contrary to the Greek form, the Roman form included various attitudes and concerns that were considered strictly Roman.
As the recording of Roman history began to evolve and take shape, many characteristics came to define what we know today as Roman historiography, most notably the strong defense of and allegiance to the Roman state and its wide variety of moral ideals, the factional nature of some histories, the splitting of historiography into two distinct categories, the Annals and the Monograph, and the rewriting of history to suit the author's needs.
Annals are a year-by-year arrangement of historical writing. In Roman historiography, annals generally begin at the founding of Rome. Proper annals include whatever events were of importance for each year, as well as other information such as the names of that year's consuls, which was the basis by which Romans generally identified years.
The Annal seems originally to have been used by the priesthood to keep track of omens and portents. The Annales Maximi were a running set of annals kept by the Pontifex Maximus. The Annales Maximi contained such information as names of the magistrates of each year, public events, and omens such as eclipses and monstrous births.
The Annales Maximi covers the period from the early Roman Republic to around the time of the Gracchi, though the authenticity of much of the material as eventually published cannot be guaranteed. The monograph could be written about a single event, a technique, rhetoric, or one of any number of other subjects. For example, Pliny the Elder once published a monograph on the use of the throwing-spear by cavalry.
Monographs were among the most common historical works found in Roman writings. Ab urbe condita , literally "From the founding of the city", describes the Roman tradition of beginning histories at the founding of the city of Rome. In Livy's Ab Urbe Condita , much time is spent on the early history of Rome, and on the founding of the city itself.
In Sallust's histories, the founding and early history of Rome is almost reduced to a single sentence. Thus, the ab urbe condita form is extremely variable while continuing to mould Roman histories.
Senatorial histories are generally particularly informative due to their "insider's" perspective. A general pattern of Senatorial histories is that they seem to invariably contain a reason that the author is writing histories instead of remaining involved in politics. Sullan annalists politicized their past. They were partisans of the Sullan faction who carried on the Marius and Sulla conflict through their histories, often rewriting them to fit their own agenda.
Some Sullan annalists may have been sources for Livy. Valerius Antias fl. He seems to have been trying to counter the Marian historian, C. Licinius Macer, whose veracity is also questionable. Roman historiography is also very well known for subversive writing styles.
In Roman historiography commentarii is simply a raw account of events often not intended for publication. It was not considered traditional "history" because it lacked the necessary speeches and literary flourishes.
Commentarii was usually turned into "history" later on. They believe that it is actually "history" since it is so well written, pro-Roman and fits the traditional patterns of historiography. Ancient Roman historians did not write for the sake of writing, they wrote in an effort to convince their audiences.
Propaganda is ever present and is the function of Roman historiography. Ancient Roman historians traditionally had personal and political baggage and were not disinterested observers. Their accounts were written with the specific moral and political agendas. For example, Q. Fabius Pictor started the tradition of historiography that was concerned with both morality and history and affirmed the prestige of Roman state and its people.
Ancient Roman historians wrote pragmatic histories in order to benefit future statesmen. The philosophy of pragmatic history treats historical happenings with special reference to causes, conditions and results. In Roman Historiography the facts and an impression of what the facts mean are presented. Interpretation is always a part of historiography; Romans never made any pretense about it.
Conflict between the facts and the interpretation of those facts indicate a good historian. Polybius , who wrote in Greek, was the first pragmatic historian. His histories have an aristocratic ethos and reveal his opinions on honor, wealth and war. Tacitus was also a pragmatic. His histories have literary merit and interpretations of facts and events. He was not purely objective, rather his judgments served a moral function.
Julius Caesar was born on July 12, or BC, into a patrician family. As a young man, he was given a priesthood as Flamen Dialis by his father-in-law, Cornelius Cinna. When that position was taken away by Sulla, Caesar spent a decade in Asia, earning a great reputation in the military. Upon his return to Rome, he was both elected tribunus militium and given the priesthood as a pontifex.
During his time in these positions, Caesar befriended Pompey and Crassus , the two men with whom he would later form the First Triumvirate. As the years went on, recognition for Caesar's political, military, and oratory skills grew and he easily was elected praetor and consul. After his consulship, Caesar gained control of the provinces of Illyricum , Cisalpine , and Transalpine Gaul.
In 58 BC, trouble arose in the Gallic provinces, sparking one of the most important wars of Caesar's career. As the Wars were raging on, Caesar fell victim to a great deal of criticisms from Rome. De Bello Gallico is a response to these criticisms, and a way for Caesar to justify these wars.
His argument is that the Gallic Wars were both just and pious, and that he and his army attacked Gaul in self-defense. The Helvetians were forming a massive migration straight through the provinces. When a group of neighboring allies came to Caesar himself asking for help against these invading Helvetians, that was all the justification Caesar needed to gather his army.
By creating an account that portrays himself as a superb military hero, Caesar was able to clear all doubts in Rome about his abilities as a leader. Although Caesar used this account for his own gain, it is not to say that the De Bello Gallico is at all unreliable. The victories that Caesar has written about did, in fact, occur.
Smaller details, however, may have been altered, and the word choice makes the reader more sympathetic to Caesar's cause. De Bello Gallico is an excellent example of the ways in which retellings of actual events can be spun to a person's advantage.
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The practice of writing history in the ancient world differed markedly from the practices employed by historians today, in large measure because ancient historians conceived of their task differently. This inquiry could take many forms, and the boundaries between history as we understand it and such genres as ethnography, geography, and biography were never clearly defined. To the extent that ancient historians did practice their craft in a way familiar to us, the choice of genre impacted the work that each has left to us. In addition, deep connections with other forms of writing, including prose genres such as oratory as well as poetic genres of epic and tragedy, contributed to the development of historical writing in ways not always recognizable to the modern practice of history. Most ancient histories were explicitly didactic in nature.
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This paper analyzes the history of diplomacy and the ancient Greek, Italian, Roman and French diplomatic traditions, and argues that modern diplomacy evolved out of the ancient traditions. The object of this essay is to inform practitioners and students of diplomacy about the development of diplomacy because the conduct of diplomacy is best understood when studied in the light of its historical roots. It is crucial to study the evolution of diplomacy because its history provides a fundamental understanding of the nature of diplomacy. The genesis of diplomacy goes back to God and his emissaries, the angels angeloi or messengers. The argument depicts God as the Chief of State and angels as diplomats or envoys.
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Guide to Ancient Greece. The Ancient Greeks lived around 3, years ago their legacy shapes the world we live in today. For some people, life in Greece was good, and many lived in busy towns and cities. You must be a UW Student Ancient Greece Facts: did you know that Classical Greek culture, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC, had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and provided the Ancient Greece's boys went to school at the age of 7 if they lived in Athens, or went to the barracks if they lived in Sparta. After the end of the Mycenean civilisation around BC a kind of "Dark Age", about which we know little, came down on the emergent Greek Dorian and Ionian peoples, from which they began to emerge some time before Homer c.
Roman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans relied on previous models in the Greek tradition such as the works of Herodotus c. Roman historiographical forms are usually different from their Greek counterparts, however, and often emphasize Roman concerns. The Roman style of history was based on the way that the Annals of the Pontifex Maximus , or the Annales Maximi , were recorded. The Annales Maximi include a wide array of information, including religious documents, names of consuls, deaths of priests, and various disasters throughout history. Contemporary Greek historians such as Polybius wrote about the rise of Rome during its conquest of Greece and ascension as the primary power of the Mediterranean in the 2nd century BC. Moving away from the annalist tradition, Roman historians of the 1st century BC such as Sallust , Livy , and even Julius Caesar wrote their works in a much fuller narrative form.
Коллеги-криптографы прозвали его Галит - таково научное название каменной соли. Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей.
Знаешь, - сказала она, - Стратмор сидит в шифровалке уже тридцать шесть часов. Может быть, он сражается с вирусом. Джабба захохотал. - Сидит тридцать шесть часов подряд. Бедняга.
Несмотря на то что вечер только начинался, было очень жарко, однако Беккер поймал себя на том, что идет через парк стремительным шагом. Голос Стратмора в телефонной трубке звучал еще настойчивее, чем утром. Новые инструкции не оставляли места сомнениям: необходимо во что бы то ни стало найти канадца. Ни перед чем не останавливаться, только бы заполучить кольцо. Беккера очень удивило, что это кольцо с какой-то невразумительной надписью представляет собой такую важность. Однако Стратмор ничего не объяснил, а Беккер не решился спросить. АНБ, - подумал .
Они рисовали на разграфленных листах какие-то символы, вглядывались в компьютерные распечатки и постоянно обращались к тексту, точнее - нагромождению букв и цифр, на экране под потолком, 5jHALSFNHKHHHFAF0HHlFGAFFj37WE fiUY0IHQ434JTPWFIAJER0cltfU4. JR4Gl) В конце концов один из них объяснил Беккеру то, что тот уже и сам понял. Эта абракадабра представляла собой зашифрованный текст: за группами букв и цифр прятались слова. Задача дешифровщиков состояла в том, чтобы, изучив его, получить оригинальный, или так называемый открытый, текст. АНБ пригласило Беккера, потому что имелось подозрение, что оригинал был написан на мандаринском диалекте китайского языка, и ему предстояло переводить иероглифы по мере их дешифровки. В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами.
Пора было отсюда вылезать. Дернул. Никакой реакции.
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