theories of war and peace pdf

Theories of war and peace pdf

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Edited by Alexandra Gheciu and William C. Wohlforth

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Theories of War and Peace

The democratic peace theory posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies. Those who dispute this theory often do so on grounds that it conflates correlation with causation , and that the academic definitions of 'democracy' and 'war' can be manipulated so as to manufacture an artificial trend.

Edited by Alexandra Gheciu and William C. Wohlforth

This book deals with the theoretical issues around the concepts of war and peace. The first section of the book, entitled Realist theories of war and peace begins with a chapter by Mearsheimer that focuses on post-Cold War Europe. The section deals mainly with the question whether Europe would be able to maintain its peace and stability in a post-Cold War era. The analysis is done within the context of the bipolar world Cold War versus the multipolar world post-Cold War.

Drawing from the neo-realist theory of international relations, the first article presents four different scenarios for a post-Cold War Europe. It is the absence of this great power that leads to anarchy with states pursuing their own national interests. The author seems to suggest that this could only be avoided if the United States and Russia continue to play the role of superpowers in Europe in order to maintain stability. According to Van Evera, the distribution of power should not be the only yardstick by which to measure the probable cause of war.

Instead, the offence-defence balance which involves factors such as the nature of diplomacy and domestic political factors, among others, need to be considered. The last article in the section authored by Glaser reveals the major dilemma that most realists face, that is, how to offer a proper understanding of state behaviour in an evolving international system. The author argues that, contrary to popular opinion about realism, the theory is able to explain international peace and state co-operation.

The second section deals with a counter-theory to realism — idealism — and how it is connected to democracy, peace and state co-operation. The section offers an in-depth analysis of the theory that democratic states do not go to war with each other.

The first article defends the proposition and demonstrates that, historically, democratic states, because of their shared belief in liberalism, have avoided war. This view, however, is immediately challenged by Layne in the second article, who argues that in cases where democratic states avoided resorting to war, the decision was based on national interests rather than the notion of promoting democracy.

He does this by referring to different examples, among them, World War I, a war fought by states that were perceived to be democratic p. Part three of the book deals with ethnicity, nationalism and war and how the latter two factors, in combination or separately, lead to war.

The entire analysis of nationalism and ethnicity is mainly focused on the international political environment in post-Cold War Eastern Europe and how the West, especially the United States, could respond to such issues. In this section, the authors seem to agree that one of the key solutions to such wars would be international intervention in states in order to protect minorities.

The recommendations made by the authors, however, appear to be blueprints, which have been tried and proved inadequate elsewhere. The fourth section of the book tackles the issue of international institutions and their role or relevance within the international system. A thought-provoking article is that of Mearsheimer who defends the realist arguments that international institutions, empirically speaking, do not possess the capacity to deal with issues of war, or to safeguard international peace.

Of particular note is the article by Keohane and Martin pp. Indeed, nation-states have invested much time and money in international institutions that continue to exist as platforms to deal with international issues that cannot be tackled by individual states.

The section successfully demonstrates that the theory of collective security as it relates to the notion of lasting peace would always remain a bone of contention in international relations discourse. The fifth and last section of the book deals with the issues of war and peace in an evolving international system. The main argument offered by the first article, which is a review essay, is that war among the industrialised countries of Europe is no longer possible.

According to Kaysen, this is the case because the leaders in these countries have realised that there is more at stake in terms of economic and political factors, in comparison with past centuries.

However, the essay does not adequately address the question why states go to war and why European states do not at this particular point in history. An important observation that could be made, is that the means of destruction have become so advanced that a war among European states could mean the end of the world.

The existence of nuclear weapons and other technologically advanced means of destruction make a total war among theses states incomprehensible. The second article by Copeland is also thought-provoking as it attempts to offer insight into the notion that economic interdependence reduces or increases the likelihood of war among states.

His conclusion is that economic interdependence result in wars among states when they want to maintain their dominance over resources. Using World War I as an example, Copeland argues that Germany went to war with other states in Europe in order to gain greater access to international markets pp. The last article looks at environmental issues and their possible effects on the international system, that is, whether scarcity of natural resources could lead to conflicts or not.

This book goes a long way to show that there is a rich tradition within international relations methodology and discourse. This rich tradition is composed of various schools of thought that ensures that the future of international relations as a discipline remains intact.

At this level, it is an important book for international relations scholars interested in understanding present-day realities through the lens of international relations theory. However, the book would have been more useful had it concentrated on issues affecting Europe, as well as the rest of the world, because the changes taking place currently affect all states.

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Drawing from theories that examine security-dilemma spiraling and the dynamics of relative decline, the chapter shows that established theories of major war can be made relevant to the nuclear age—once they have incorporated the importance of Cold War spiraling and inadvertent war. The chapter argues that any theory of international relations that seeks to explain changes in the likelihood of nuclear war must incorporate into its causal logic the willingness of states to take actions that risk an inadvertent slide into war. While it may not be rational to initiate a nuclear war against another great power, it may indeed be rational, under certain circumstances, for leaders to switch to hard-line actions that raise the probability of a war neither side would have actively desired prior to the onset of a crisis. Keywords: realism , deterrence , security dilemma , bargaining theory of war , inadvertent war. Dale C.

Robert E. Williams, Jr. What happens following a war is important to the moral judgments we make concerning warfare, just as the intentions going in and the means used are. There has, however, been inadequate attention paid to considerations of jus post bellum in the just war tradition. This essay seeks to contribute to recent efforts to develop jus post bellum principles by first noting some of the ways that jus ad bellum and jus in bello considerations serve to constrain what can legitimately be done after war. We argue, however, that the constraints grounded in traditional just war theory do not offer sufficient guidance for judging postwar behavior and that principles grounded in the concept of human rights are needed to complete our understanding of what constitutes a just war.


“Sources of Western Just War Theory.” Interview by author. February 29, 7 Johnson, James Turner. The Quest for Peace. Pg. Page.


Theories of War and Peace

This book deals with the theoretical issues around the concepts of war and peace. The first section of the book, entitled Realist theories of war and peace begins with a chapter by Mearsheimer that focuses on post-Cold War Europe. The section deals mainly with the question whether Europe would be able to maintain its peace and stability in a post-Cold War era. The analysis is done within the context of the bipolar world Cold War versus the multipolar world post-Cold War.

Bassford However, with sometimes-controversial theories on war, peace, and politics throughout Vom Kriege , Clausewitz provides a thoroughly unique perspective by which to interpret the world that is, arguably, still highly relevant in the 21 st century, over years since the conception of Vom Kriege. Carl von Clausewitz: a theorist of war itself. Elshtain

From International Security Readers. Edited by Michael E. Brown , Owen R. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. New approaches to understanding war and peace in the changing international system.

2 comments

  • LГ­bera O. 27.04.2021 at 19:26

    I will put pdf's of all required article–length pieces (but not the book) on the Courseworks website for the class (rcthi.org), organized by.

    Reply
  • Courtney B. 02.05.2021 at 22:05

    alliances and war, the democratic peace, the diversionary theory of war, the bargaining model rcthi.org​pdf.

    Reply

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