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Regional experts participating in the preparation of this document, however, the guidelines do not necessarily represent the policies, practices or requirements of their governments or organizations.
Reproduction of this document in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes may be made without special permission from the United States Environmental Protection Agency U. The guidelines are part of a broader program to strengthen environmental impact assessment EIA review under environmental cooperation agreements associated with the "CAFTA-DR" free trade agreement between the United States and five countries in Central America and the Dominican Republic.
The guidelines and example terms of reference were prepared by regional experts from the CAFTA-DR countries and the United States in both the government organizations responsible for the environment and mining and leading academics designated by the respective Ministers supported by the U. Agency for International Development U. The guidelines draw upon existing materials from within and outside these countries and from international organizations and do not represent the policies, practices or requirements of any one country or organization.
The guidelines are available in English and Spanish on the international websites of the U. Environmental Protection Agency U. USEPA is developing and testing technology to recycle and capture mercury, and hopes the high price of mercury will be an incentive to significantly reduce this source of contamination. The guidelines are divided into eight sections with accompanying appendices. These sections include: A. Introduction B.
Project and Alternatives Description D. Environmental Setting E. Potential Impacts F. Assessing Impacts G. Mitigation and Monitoring Measures H. Environmental Management Plans I. References and Glossary of Terms J. What is Mining 2. Erosion And Sedimentation 5. Sampling And Analysis Plan 7. International Cyanide Code 8. It is during this early stage that environmental, social and economic impacts should be introduced, and alternatives developed - even before an application is made for EIA.
Many problems can be avoided through wise selection of location, site and operations design, and anticipation of issues such as closure taking the whole of the environmental setting into account early in the process. If environmental consultants or environmental impact expertise are brought in late in the process, at the stage when the proponent needs to prepare an application and an EIA document for approval, it limits the opportunities to build environmental, social and economic considerations into the project proposal as an integral part of developing project feasibility.
This is universally considered to be a short sighted practice. Projects which require substantial financing often will have fatal flaw analyses of all sorts performed, including environmental. Some of the outcome of such analyses also feeds the narrative on Project Alternatives and why some of the alternatives were rejected.
These regulations distinguish the size and nature of proposed projects or the types of projected impacts for which the full environmental impact assessment procedure and which types of projects or impacts might justify a streamlined procedure based on potential lower level of impact and nature of the proposed activity. Projects usually fall within one of three categories, some of which are further subdivided: A usually is high impact, Bl and B2, medium impact and C low impact but this varies by country.
Screening is the process used by government officials to review an application for EIA to determine the appropriate categorization. For the most part, commercial mining activities are usually considered among those projects with potentially high or high medium impact.
Although any preparer of an EIA would have to engage in a scoping process, the term often is used to describe a process of consultation with interested and affected stakeholders in the project, in the area and infrastructure potentially affected by the project and in the potentially affected resources. In CAFTA-DR countries of Central America and the Dominican Republic, government officials issue a Terms of Reference to help guide the preparation of an EIA document, in essence a form of scoping which usually includes a requirement for the project proponent to engage the public and stakeholders, including local governments and NGOs and tribal leaders, before proceeding to prepare the EIA document just for this purpose.
In guidelines issued by the International Finance Corporation and as a practice in the U. Section B2 in this section of the guideline expands on public participation during the scoping process. It is customary for the Terms of Reference to include requirements for the project proponent to engage the public and to document the results of this outreach process in the EIA document. Countries will usually provide a formal opportunity for a public hearing after the EIA document is reviewed by government staff and determined to be complete.
The Model Terms of Reference included in this guideline emphasizes the importance of involving the public as early as possible to ensure that opportunities for reconciling economic, social and environmental concerns can be considered. A special section on Public Participation is included in this guideline under Section B2. In countries in Central America and the Dominican Republic, deficiencies in an EIA document are usually addressed through additional supplemental submissions of Annexes and correspondence.
If deficiencies are sufficiently significant an EIA document might be rejected and the project proponent would restart the entire process. In the U. It therefore is very important that the consideration of alternatives, impacts and their mitigation be written in a clear and accessible manner to the range of stakeholders who are making decisions related to the project.
Part of the decision process is engagement of stakeholders within and outside government in a timely and constructive manner, allowing for the type of give and take needed to address and find acceptable solutions to diverse interests.
Commitments are usually secured with financial guarantees. The commitment to implement environmental measures runs throughout the process from site preparation to closure. It is the responsibility of the project proponent to implement measures unless the commitments are assigned and agreed to by other parties such as might be the case in the provision of adequate infrastructure to address needs to treat liquid and solid waste from a site, or to construct a road.
For this system to work, commitments in the EIA should be written in a manner which clearly provides the basis for an independent audit and also clarity for the project proponent to ensure it is clear what they will be undertaking and when.
Reviewers should ensure that minimum requirements are met, that key stakeholders and important issues have not been ignored or under-represented, and that opportunities for effectively resolving underlying conflicts are provided.
The process for engaging the public and other stakeholders fails if it is undertaken as an afterthought or poorly implemented or viewed as a one-time event. Opening up real opportunities for engagement by the public, local governments, and interested and affected institutions requires a degree of openness and disclosure which can be uncomfortable for some who fear that it might open the door to unnecessary complication, higher costs and loss of control.
However, the clear lessons from failed public participation processes are just the reverse: if the public is engaged early, and in an open and transparent manner, the process can help to avoid both unnecessary conflict and potential financial hardship due to project delays and occasionally even permit denial.
This chapter will refer to public and stakeholder involvement interchangeably, but requirements for and the timing of participation for different subgroups may vary. Section B2 addresses requirements for public participation. Included in this chapter are: 1. Requirements for participation; Methods for identifying and engaging affected and interested publics; and Reporting on and responsiveness to public comments.
Because there is no easy formula for describing what is required to be successful in a given situation, legal requirements for public participation are formulated as minimum requirements of law, and generally do not reflect best practices designed to meet the full goals of public participation as an ongoing process. To address the need to tailor a public participation plan to the circumstances some CAFTA DR countries require that the project proponent develop and implement such a plan.
The EIA should document the steps taken to meet requirements and overall goals of public participation including: when, who was involved, what the comments were and how they were considered. Public participation and consultation ideally should be initiated at the scoping stage of the EIA process, before steps are taken to prepare the EIA document.
This can be accomplished through a public notice of intent to prepare an EIA for a specific action. Requirements may specify whether solicitation of comments from the public should take place in formal public hearings, or may allow or encourage informal workshops or information sessions Public Hearings: Most laws on public participation provide for the opportunity for a public hearing. This is a formal legal process with little opportunity, if at all, for give and take discussion on options, alternatives and assumptions.
It is for that reason it is considered by most experts on public participation to be the least effective means for actual public involvement Consideration of Public Comments: Requirements for public comments to be considered in the review by the government if they have a sound basis Allocation of costs: Rules about who needs to pay, i.
This section addresses: 1 the identification of stakeholders, taking into account the goals and objectives of the specific project or program that is being analyzed in the assessment and the potential issues of concern; and 2 methods, or the tools and techniques to engage the identified stakeholders, when those tools are employed, including roles and responsibilities.
The geographic scope should include the areas in and around the project, from the perspective of both political and natural resource boundaries, in other words, the full geographic scope of each of the natural and human resources potentially affected by the proposed action. Identifying the specific issues presented by a proposed project or program will help to reveal the key stakeholders, and the stakeholders also will help to identify issues for analysis.
Additional stakeholders will be discovered throughout the entire assessment process and should be included in subsequent public participation activities. Although laws and regulations might only require a formal public hearing, "talking at the public" is not a substitute for active listening. That is why public hearings are historically poor ways to engage the public, and it is best to augment formal procedures with other processes to enable the give and take of dialogue and discussion.
Cultural nuances may make other types of outreach helpful and informative, such as home visits with elders or people who do not trust public meetings. Communications which are early, clear and responsive both to information provided and concerns raised are essential to build trust. The selection and timing of methods used to engage stakeholders and the broader public should result in: a encouragement to offer information important to assessing impacts and developing alternatives, b transparency about what is proposed, its potential impacts and means of addressing them, and c a clear message to all members of the public that their input is important and useful throughout the EIA process.
Scoping occurs early in the EIA process to identify key issues, and to focus and bound the assessment. Scoping typically is conducted in a meeting or series of meetings involving the project proponent, the public, and the responsible government agencies. The structure of the meetings may vary depending on the nature and complexity of the proposed action and on the number of interested participants.
Small-scale scoping meetings might be conducted like business conferences, with participants contributing in informal discussions of the issues. Large-scale scoping meetings might require a more formal atmosphere, like that of a public hearing, where interested parties are afforded the opportunity to present testimony.
Meetings may need to include interpreters to translate information for people who do not speak the language in which the meeting is being conducted, as is the case with all procedural and analytical stages of the EIA process. Project proponents should document specific steps taken to engage the public and other stakeholders, and the timing of those engagements, both before preparing the EIA and during its development.
Included in the annexes of the EIA should be a summary of public outreach activities, audience, number of persons, organizations involved, concerns raised, responses to comments and, if required, actual copies of written comments received.
Reporting on comments obtained through any of the methods identified above should be sufficiently clear to enable an EIA reviewer and the public to assess responsiveness to comments, including whether they were understood, whether they were found to be appropriate or not and why, and if appropriate, what actions were taken to respond to them and whether those actions are sufficient to fully address the concerns.
Several approaches might be acceptable to summarize or include actual transcripts and copies of oral and written comments and to demonstrate responsiveness through narrative, tables and cross-references to specific changes. Guatemala and international organizations concerning the planning and implementation of public participation which are noted in the reference list. This section contains some of the most important information of the EIA since it provides the core data for forecasting potential environmental impacts, and for reducing, eliminating or mitigating those impacts.
Engineering design in an EIA should present a clear understanding as to how the mine is going to operate from start to finish. Flow charts should show the path of the ore from removal through collection, transportation, and beneficiation and other processing, and load-out and delivery. Maps and plan views should be developed to show the layout of the mine and processing facilities.
The design should show year by year activities as the mine expands and restoration takes place. Activities to take place during the first five years should be presented in detail as well as a general approach for various activities for the "life of mine.
This can include modifications to the proposed project or entirely different projects to meet the purpose and need. The proposed engineering design would already include information describing the design and operation of a proposed mining project and its alternatives. Usually, by the time an EIA is being prepared, much of the preliminary planning and engineering design have been completed by the proponent to prove economic feasibility. The designs and construction plans may not be detailed enough for actual construction and implementation, but all aspects of the plan will have been contemplated and preliminary power generation or transmission system designs will have been prepared and compiled.
The plan likely will also contain information on support facilities and labor needs. Will it be used domestically or exported to other countries? This project description should include the nature, size and type of project and all related facilities and activities, its design, construction, operation, site design and land area, subsequent anticipated expansion and closure as well as the profile of direct releases into the environment, employment, resource and waste streams, related transportation and the like, which are elaborated below.
Reflowing-driven paragraph recognition for electronic books in PDF. When reading electronic books on handheld devices, content sometimes should be reflowed and recomposed to adapt for small-screen mobile devices. According to people's reading practice, it is reasonable to reflow the text content based on paragraphs. Hence, this paper addresses the requirement and proposes a set of novel methods on paragraph recognition for electronic books in PDF. The proposed methods consist of three steps, namely, physical structure analysis, paragraph segmentation, and reading order detection.
Combining science , aesthetics , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality or an imagined reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems and geographic information science. What is the earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the term "map" is not well-defined and because some artifacts that might be maps might actually be something else. As early as the 8th century, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into Arabic. In ancient China , geographical literature dates to the 5th century BCE. Early forms of cartography of India included depictions of the pole star and surrounding constellations.
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The ungrateful sod had turned on his master. Explosions began, some stories even mythical. In a moment they were through the door and into the outer airlock. After an eternity of standing around, trying to see a way through, and he had passed it some time ago. She had to do whatever it took to get Hank free.
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Regional experts participating in the preparation of this document, however, the guidelines do not necessarily represent the policies, practices or requirements of their governments or organizations. Reproduction of this document in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes may be made without special permission from the United States Environmental Protection Agency U. The guidelines are part of a broader program to strengthen environmental impact assessment EIA review under environmental cooperation agreements associated with the "CAFTA-DR" free trade agreement between the United States and five countries in Central America and the Dominican Republic. The guidelines and example terms of reference were prepared by regional experts from the CAFTA-DR countries and the United States in both the government organizations responsible for the environment and mining and leading academics designated by the respective Ministers supported by the U. Agency for International Development U.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Smith and Melvin Kranzberg. The field of materials is immense and diverse. Historically, it began with the emergence of man himself, and materials gave name to the ages of civilization.