File Name: cogeneration topping and bottoming cycle .zip
Cogeneration or combined heat and power CHP is the use of a heat engine  or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power CCHP refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector. The terms cogeneration and trigeneration can also be applied to the power systems simultaneously generating electricity, heat, and industrial chemicals e. Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel because otherwise-wasted heat from electricity generation is put to some productive use. Combined heat and power CHP plants recover otherwise wasted thermal energy for heating. This is also called combined heat and power district heating.
Enter search terms. Print This Page. Agency filings affecting this section. The following definitions apply when these terms are used in the provisions of this chapter. For a cogeneration facility, the sixty percent annual capacity factor applies to only the electrical production intended to be supplied for sale. For purposes of this rule, designed means originally specified by the design engineers for the power plant or generating units such as simple cycle combustion turbines installed at a power plant; and intended means allowed for by the current permits for the power plant, recognizing the capability of the installed equipment or intent of the owner or operator of the power plant. In general, a cogeneration facility is comprised of equipment and processes which through the sequential use of energy is used to produce electric energy and useful thermal energy such as heat or steam that is used for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes.
Caton, Jerald A. Last reviewed: May A system in which combined production of electrical power and useful thermal energy is achieved by the sequential use of a fuel or fuels. The electrical power is produced by a generator that is most often powered by a prime mover such as a steam turbine, gas turbine, or reciprocating piston engine. Examples of useful thermal energy include hot exhaust gases, hot water, steam, or chilled water.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power CHP is the on-site generation of electricity from waste heat. When generating electricity from coal , natural gas or nuclear power only a fraction of the actual energy content released during combustion is converted into electricity. The remainder of the energy is lost as waste heat. In a CHP power plant, this waste heat is recovered for other applications such as space heating or other industrial processes that require heat. Hence, CHP is an efficient process to recover energy that would have otherwise been lost.
Based on the energy requirements of a set of continuous metallurgic heat treatment furnaces, this paper describes and compares several energy efficiency and cogeneration scenarios in a Portuguese metallurgic plant in terms of operating costs vs. Such scenarios are analyzed in terms of hourly and annual savings. As part of improved heat integration, an energy cascade was designed and several hypotheses were studied to better match the decreasing thermal requirements of various heat treatment furnaces, each with different set point temperature and operating times. The scenario which presents the highest primary energy and economic saving adopts a special kind of gas turbine, one that due to its own characteristics requires a larger amount of excess air, hence being capable of providing enough O 2 for a post-combustion in the existing burners. This setting is essential so that the furnaces are able to reach the required set point temperatures.
Skip to main content. Combined heat and power CHP , also known as cogeneration, refers to an array of proven technologies that concurrently generate electricity and useful thermal energy from the same conventional or renewable fuel sources. CHP is a form of local or distributed generation as heat and power production take place at or near the point of consumption. CHP generally is more energy efficient than the separate generation of electricity and useful thermal energy.
A combined cycle power plant is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy. On land, when used to make electricity the most common type is called a combined cycle gas turbine CCGT plant. The same principle is also used for marine propulsion, where it is called a combined gas and steam COGAS plant. Combining two or more thermodynamic cycles improves overall efficiency, which reduces fuel costs. The principle is that after completing its cycle in the first engine, the working fluid the exhaust is still hot enough that a second subsequent heat engine can extract energy from the heat in the exhaust.
These terms are used to describe two different types of combined heat and power CHP systems which utilise waste heat to increase the efficiency of the power generation process. Topping cycle CHP is the process of using fuel to generate mechanical energy which is used to create electricity using a generator. The resulting waste heat is captured from this process to heat water for use as hot water or steam throughout the facility.
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