File Name: department of energy fundamentals handbook instrumentation and control .zip
The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources and prepared by the DOE Training Coordination Program. Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules. The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was originally developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems.
The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide you with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems.
The Instrumentation and Control handbook presents more than enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to better understand basic system and equipment operations. The Instrumentation and Control handbook consists of seven modules that are contained in two volumes.
The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook. Volume 1 of 2. Module 1 - Temperature Detectors -Explanation- This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of temperature detectors and indication circuits. RTD elements are usually long, spring-like wires surrounded by an insulator and enclosed in a sheath of metal.
Figure 2 shows the internal construction of an RTD. This particular design has a platinum element that is surrounded by a porcelain insulator. The insulator prevents a short circuit between the wire and the metal sheath. Inconel, a nickel-iron-chromium alloy, is normally used in manufacturing the RTD sheath because of its inherent corrosion resistance. When placed in a liquid or gas medium, the Inconel sheath quickly reaches the temperature of the medium.
The change in temperature will cause the platinum wire to heat or cool, resulting in a proportional change in resistance. This change in resistance is then measured by a precision resistance measuring device that is calibrated to give the proper temperature reading. This device is normally a bridge circuit, which will be covered in detail later in this text. Module 2 - Pressure Detectors -Explanation- This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of pressure detectors and indication circuits.
Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors. The bourdon tube pressure instrument is one of the oldest pressure sensing instruments in use today. The bourdon tube refer to Figure 2 consists of a thin-walled tube that is flattened diametrically on opposite sides to produce a cross-sectional area elliptical in shape, having two long flat sides and two short round sides. The tube is bent lengthwise into an arc of a circle of to degrees.
Pressure applied to the inside of the tube causes distention of the flat sections and tends to restore its original round cross-section. This change in cross-section causes the tube to straighten slightly. Since the tube is permanently fastened at one end, the tip of the tube traces a curve that is the result of the change in angular position with respect to the center. Within limits, the movement of the tip of the tube can then be used to position a pointer or to develop an equivalent electrical signal which is discussed later in the text to indicate the valve of the applied internal pressure.
Module 3 - Level Detectors -Explanation- This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of level detectors and indication circuits. Steam Generator Level Instrument. Figure 14 illustrates a typical steam generator level detection arrangement. A separate pressure detector measures the pressure of the saturated steam. Since saturation pressure is proportional to saturation temperature, a pressure signal can be used to correct the differential pressure for density.
An electronic circuit uses the pressure signal to compensate for the difference in density between the reference leg water and the steam generator fluid. The venturi tube, illustrated in Figure 3, is the most accurate flow-sensing element when properly calibrated. The venturi tube has a converging conical inlet, a cylindrical throat, and a diverging recovery cone.
It has no projections into the fluid, no sharp corners, and no sudden changes in contour. The inlet section decreases the area of the fluid stream, causing the velocity to increase and the pressure to decrease. The low pressure is measured in the center of the cylindrical throat since the pressure will be at its lowest value, and neither the pressure nor the velocity is changing. The high pressure is measured upstream of the entrance cone.
The major disadvantages of this type of flow detection are the high initial costs for installation and difficulty in installation and inspection.
Pitot Tube. The pitot tube, illustrated in Figure 5, is another primary flow element used to produce a differential pressure for flow detection. In its simplest form, it consists of a tube with an opening at the end.
The small hole in the end is positioned such that it faces the flowing fluid. The velocity of the fluid at the opening of the tube decreases to zero. This provides for the high pressure input to a differential pressure detector. A pressure tap provides the low pressure input. For the precise measurement of gas flow steam at varying pressures and temperatures, it is necessary to determine the density, which is pressure and temperature dependent, and from this value to calculate the actual flow.
The use of a computer is essential to measure flow with changing pressure or temperature. The computer is designed to accept input signals from commonly used differential pressure detectors, or from density or pressure plus temperature sensors, and to provide an output which is proportional to the actual rate of flow. Module 5 - Position Indicators -Explanation- This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of position indicators and control circuits.
Control transformer synchros are used when only a voltage indication of angular position is desired. It is similar in construction to an ordinary synchro except that the rotor windings are used only to generate a voltage which is known as an error voltage. The rotor windings of a control transformer synchro are wound with many turns of fine wire to produce a high impedance.
Since the rotor is not fed excitation voltage, the current drawn by the stator windings would be high if they were the same as an ordinary synchro; therefore, they are also wound with many turns of fine wire to prevent excessive current. During normal operation, the output of a control transformer synchro is nearly zero nulled when its angular position is the same as that of the transmitter.
A simple synchro system, consisting of one synchro transmitter or generator connected to one synchro receiver or motor , is shown in Figure 2. Position detection devices provide a method to determine the position of a valve or control rod. Reed switches can also be used to provide coarse, incremental position indication. Position indications vary from simple indications such as a light to meter indications showing exact position. Control functions are usually in the form of interlocks.
Pump isolation valves are sometimes interlocked with the pump. In some applications, these interlocks act to prevent the pump from being started with the valves shut.
Valves are sometimes interlocked with each other. In some systems, two valves may be interlocked to prevent both of the valves from being opened at the same time.
This feature is used to prevent undesirable system flowpaths. Control rod interlocks are normally used to prevent outward motion of certain rods unless certain conditions are met. One such interlock does not allow outward motion of control rods until the rods used to scram the reactor have been withdrawn to a predetermined height. This and all other rod interlocks ensure that the safety of the reactor remains intact. The newest electroscope utilizes a quartz fiber and has many advantages over the gold- leaf type.
It is portable, less dependent on position, much smaller in size, and more sensitive. The capacity of the quartz fiber electroscope is about 0. The sensitive element is a fine gold plated quartz fiber mounted on a parallel metal support. Figure 22 illustrates a quartz fiber electroscope. Scintillation counters are constructed by coupling a suitable scintillation phosphor to a light-sensitive photomultiplier tube.
Figure 25 illustrates an example of a scintillation counter using a thallium-activated sodium iodide crystal. There are three classes of solid state scintillation phosphors: organic crystals, inorganic crystals, and plastic phosphors. Inorganic crystals are characterized by high density, high atomic number, and pulse decay times of approximately 1 microsecond. Thus, they exhibit high efficiency for detection of gamma rays and are capable of handling high count rates.
Organic scintillation phosphors include naphthalene, stilbene, and anthracene. The decay time of this type of phosphor is approximately 10 nanoseconds. This type of crystal is frequently used in the detection of beta particles. Plastic phosphors are made by adding scintillation chemicals to a plastic matrix. The decay constant is the shortest of the three phosphor types, approaching 1 or 2 nanoseconds. The plastic has a high hydrogen content; therefore, it is useful for fast neutron detectors.
Gamma spectroscopy is a radiochemistry measurement method that determines the energy and count rate of gamma rays emitted by radioactive substances. Gamma spectroscopy is an extremely important measurement.
A detailed analysis of the gamma ray energy spectrum is used to determine the identity and quantity of gamma emitters present in a material.
The equipment used in gamma spectroscopy includes a detector, a pulse sorter multichannel analyzer and associated amplifiers and data readout devices. The detector is normally a sodium iodide NaI scintillation counter.
Figure 27 shows a block diagram of a gamma spectrometer. Module 7 - Principles of Control Systems -Explanation- This module describes the principles of operation for control systems used in evaluating and regulating changing conditions in a process. Example of a Proportional Process Control System. Figure 16 illustrates a process system using a proportional temperature controller for providing hot water. Steam is admitted to the heat exchanger to raise the temperature of the cold water supply.
The temperature detector monitors the hot water outlet and produces a 3 to 15 psi output signal that represents a controlled variable range of o to oF.
The controller compares the measured variable signal with the setpoint and sends a 3 to 15 psi output to the final control element, which is a 3-in control valve.
The proportional controller is reverse-acting so that the control valve throttles down to reduce steam flow as the hot water outlet temperature increases; the control valve will open further to increase steam flow as the water temperature decreases.
DOE Fundamentals Handbook. Volume 1 of 2. Department of Energy FSC Washington, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Scientific apparatus and instruments. Includes index. Targeted to engineers, technicians, … I. Placko, Dominique. Instrumentation is the branch of engineering that deals with measurement and control.. This title presents the general principles of instrumentation processes. ISBN 1.
The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources and prepared by the DOE Training Coordination Program. Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules. The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was originally developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems. The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide you with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems.
This preview shows page - out of pages. Fundamentals Of Test Measurement Instrumentation full free pdf books Retrouvez Fundamentals of Instrumentation and Measurement et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon. View fundamentals-of-instrumentation-and-measurement.
WelcomeThis Portable Document Format PDF file contains bookmarks, thumbnails, and hyperlinks to help you navigate through the document. The modules listed in the Overview are linked to the corresponding pages. Text headings in each module are linked to and from the table of contents for that module. Click on the DOE seal below to move to the Overview.
The Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook entitled Electrical Science was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsible for the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities. A basic understanding of electricity and electrical systems is necessary for DOE nuclear facility operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff to safely operate and maintain the facility and facility support systems. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts to the job.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Welcome This Portable Document Format PDF file contains bookmarks, thumbnails, and hyperlinks to help you navigate through the document. The modules listed in the Overview are linked to the corresponding pages. Text headings in each module are linked to and from the table of contents for that module. Click on the DOE seal below to move to the Overview. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.
Fozard, B. Wightman, E. Rhodes, T. IC Page iv Rev. Major component arrangement b. Materials used1.
The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems.
Своей гладкой окружной формой она напоминала дельфина-косатку, застывшего от холода в схваченном морозом море. Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством. Подобно айсбергу машина скрывала девяносто процентов своей массы и мощи под поверхностью. Ее секрет был спрятан в керамических шахтах, уходивших на шесть этажей вниз; ее похожий на ракету корпус окружал лабиринт подвесных лесов и кабелей, из-под которых слышалось шипение фреоновой системы охлаждения. Генераторы внизу производили постоянный низкочастотный гул, что делало акустику в шифровалке какой-то загробной, присущей миру призраков. ТРАНСТЕКСТ, подобно всем великим технологическим достижениям, появился на свет в силу необходимости. В 1980-е годы АНБ стало свидетелем революции в сфере телекоммуникаций, которой было суждено навсегда изменить весь мир разведывательной деятельности, - имеется в виду широкая доступность Интернета, а если говорить конкретнее - появление электронной почты.
Фонд электронных границ сразу увидел в этом конфликт интересов и всячески пытался доказать, что АНБ намеренно создаст несовершенный алгоритм - такой, какой ему будет нетрудно взломать.
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