File Name: musical form and analysis time pattern proportion .zip
Music Analysis Pdf Naming main forms. In music processing, one main objective is to contribute concepts, models, algorithms, implementations, and eval- uations for tackling such types of analysis and retrieval problems. Two classification techniques and their definitions of confidence will be explored. Offering pieces of music from the Baroque period to the present, Music for Analysis, Eighth Edition, is the most comprehensive anthology of its kind.
ABSTRACT: The development of musical style across time and geography is of particular interest to historians and musicologists, yet quantitative evidence to support these trends has been lacking. This paper illustrates a novel application of the nPVI 'normalized pairwise variability index' equation to probe and quantify the rhythmic components of music over time. The nPVI equation quantifies the average difference between adjacent events in a sequence e.
Interestingly, the proportion of 'low nPVI' or 'Italianate' themes decreases rapidly with time while 'high nPVI' more Germanic themes concomitantly increase in frequency. Thus, the precise rhythmic components of complex stylistic shifts in music can be quantitatively extracted from music and support the historical record and theory. THE nPVI 'normalized pairwise variability index' is an equation originally developed for linguistic analysis that quantifies the average amount of durational contrast between successive events in a sequence e.
A high nPVI value, for instance, indicates greater durational contrast between adjacent events in a sequence cf. Recent studies of the nPVI have begun to explore the variation of this statistic with respect to time and culture.
By plotting mean nPVI vs. These data proved to be consistent with the idea from historical musicology that the influence of Italian music on German music began to wane in the second half of the s due to a rise of musical nationalism in Germany Morrow, Of note, these findings have been replicated and expanded upon to include polynomial modeling of an initial increase and decrease in music from 34 French composers during this era Hansen et al.
It is important to note that analyses such as those in Daniele and Patel , and Daniele and Patel are based on assigning each composer a single, average nPVI value. More recently, when composer's lives were demarcated into different compositional epochs by historical musicologists Daniele and Patel found that the mean nPVI for each compositional period does not vary dramatically.
Nevertheless, there is much still to learn by examining each composer's theme corpus more closely. For instance, what is the rhythmic "distribution" of each composer during this transition from ? To what extent might historical factors the "Italian" influence affect nPVI distribution over time? To test if nPVI could be used to detect dramatic historical shifts in music, the change in nPVI distribution was explored with respect to the aforementioned stylistic transition in German music and compared to a culture where no change in nPVI would be expected e.
A simulation in which nPVI was modeled to increase modestly over a long period of time was then compared to the calculated data. Thus, this paper illustrates the utility of the nPVI equation and method in quantifying the precise rhythmic underpinnings of a complex stylistic transition in music history.
Data collection and analysis was computed and analyzed according to the previous methods and exclusion criteria were enumerated extensively in Daniele and Patel Beethoven was considered one of the Romantic composers despite writing before the "Romantic period" Solomon, ; d'Indy, More explicitly, distributions were calculated by plugging in composer mean nPVI, standard deviation, and nPVI range into the aforementioned program and then plotting the resulting proportions for each range.
These values were used to demarcate bins for each composer's theme corpus Table 1. Thus, the use of an nPVI of When the frequencies in Table 1 were plotted against each composer's midpoint year, and regression lines fitted, a striking trend was observed Figure 1.
No significant change in the proportion of themes with nPVI These trends are almost identical when the theme cutoff is raised to themes, which excludes Wagner and Strauss, Jr. Thus, very low nPVI themes are seemingly being replaced with very high nPVI themes while the middle range stays constant. One does not see these same trends when this analysis is performed on individual Italian composers a culture that has been shown to maintain a constant nPVI over time. For Italians, all slopes in these ranges are below or equal to 0.
Three vertical dots black, grey, and white , representing the percent of themes within a particular nPVI range for each composer are plotted against midpoint year. Linear regressions were computed from the proportion of themes, for each composer, within each nPVI range. A computer simulation was performed to test this hypothesis and the results are shown in Figure 2.
Finally, in stark contrast to the observed composer data Figure 1 the proportion of "mid-range nPVI" themes Almost identical results were found when Wagner and Strauss, Jr. Predicted percent of themes within a particular range for each composer based on each composer's calculated mean and standard deviation plotted against midpoint year.
Three vertical dots black, grey, and white , represent the percent of themes within a particular nPVI range for each composer and are plotted against midpoint year. Linear regressions were computed from the proportion of themes, for each composer, within an nPVI range. The present study illustrates how nPVI analysis can reveal the precise rhythmic underpinnings of important musical shifts. Thus, to understand which rhythms are changing and when the distribution of nPVI within each composer's corpus of themes was explored.
Themes in the middle range between A similar analysis of Italian composers where one would expect no changes with time revealed no significant linear regressions while a simulation of incremental nPVI increases with time also differed significantly from the observed results Figure 2. This is in contrast to an alternative hypothesis that the majority of nPVIs are modestly increasing to eventually resemble "more German" nPVIs by the mid- to late s e.
Figure 2. More broadly, these data suggest what has been reported by musicologists e. Morrow, that composers in the late 's made a conscious choice to write "German" themes in place of the "Italianate" themes they once wrote. With such strikingly different distributions, it is interesting to speculate that these composers' themes might be reflecting rhythms that are characteristic of 20 th century composers, rather than the Romantic period they lived in.
In fact, their style was most likely characteristic of the "New German School"; composers which pitted Beethoven's "absolute music" against their invention, the "symphonic poem". Importantly, these composers were not constrained by conventional musical forms e. Walker, , pp. This break from the traditional compositional style can be seen as early as Wagner's Tristan and Isolde which is thought to have inspired future musical conventions like atonality, often used in "20 th century" music Deathridge, , p.
Future studies including additional "New German School" composers like Franz Liszt and 20 th century German composers like Arnold Schoenberg could test if this predilection for very high nPVI themes is prevalent in these artists. In conclusion, the current paper demonstrates the significance of using nPVI analysis as a tool to probe and quantify the precise rhythmic components of stylistic trends in music history. Thus, it provides a quantitative mechanism for comparison and support to the historical record and theory.
Additional research using nPVI analysis could include the exploration of not only how complex stylistic trends in music history progress and develop, but also what the specific, underlying rhythmic structure of these trends might be. Daniele 1 University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT: The development of musical style across time and geography is of particular interest to historians and musicologists, yet quantitative evidence to support these trends has been lacking. Submitted July 6; accepted November 4.
Introduction THE nPVI 'normalized pairwise variability index' is an equation originally developed for linguistic analysis that quantifies the average amount of durational contrast between successive events in a sequence e.
Methods Theme List, Exclusion Criteria, and Data Analysis Data collection and analysis was computed and analyzed according to the previous methods and exclusion criteria were enumerated extensively in Daniele and Patel Table 1. Bach Strauss, Jr. Strauss Discussion The present study illustrates how nPVI analysis can reveal the precise rhythmic underpinnings of important musical shifts.
The usefulness of metrics in the quantification of speech rhythm. Journal of Phonetics, 40 , A dictionary of musical themes, revised edition. London: Faber and Faber. Daniele, J. The interplay of linguistic and historical influences on musical rhythm in different cultures. In: S. Lipscomb et al. Adelaide, Australia: Causal Productions.
An empirical study of historical patterns in musical rhythm. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 31 1 , Stability and change in rhythmic patterning across a composer's lifetime: a study of four famous composers using the nPVI equation.
Music Perception. Deathridge, J. Wagner Beyond Good and Evil. Warner Eds. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. In Press. Non-linear changes in the rhythm of European art music: Quantitative support for historical musicology. Music Perception Huron, D. Music Perception, 21 , New York: Grove. London, J.
Music Perception, 29 , Quantitative characterisations of speech rhythm: Syllable-timing in Singapore English. Language and Speech, 43 4 , — Music Perception, 28 , German music criticism in the late eighteenth century: aesthetic issues in instrumental music. Cambridge, U.
K: Cambridge University Press. An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music. Cognition, 87 , BB Stress-timed vs. A comment on Huron and Ollen Acoustic correlates of linguistic rhythm: Perspectives.
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In music, form refers to the structure of a musical composition or performance. These organizational elements may be broken into smaller units called phrases , which express a musical idea but lack sufficient weight to stand alone. Compositions that do not follow a fixed structure and rely more on improvisation are considered free-form. A fantasia is an example of this. To aid in the process of describing form, musicians have developed a simple system of labeling musical units with letters. In his textbook "Listening to Music", professor Craig Wright writes,.
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