File Name: simulacra and simulation italiano .zip
By juxtaposing these simulacra, this essay deliberately creates a montage that reveals new ideas about modern Italy. Specifically, these simulacra mark the transformation of imagined community into touristic commodity, a type of Italian hyperreality, and everyday practices of power covered up by a patina of leisure.
Or, take pictures on a gondola in Tokyo. This essay explores how and why these large-scale reproductions have come to stand in as Italy and what they mean for re-thinking Italy as an imagined community. While these reproductions simulate a reality that appears to be Italian, they also exert new forms of control over territories and subjects. Moreover, the rubric of tourism provides a patina of leisure that masks these new forms of controlled socialization.
What makes Italy so predisposed to simulacral reproduction? This essay contends that Italy, as both subject and object of simulacral repro- duction, is firstly linked to its long and rich history of mass tourism. As one of the most touristed places on earth, citing the phrase coined by Robert Davis and Garry Marvin, Italy becomes predisposed more than any other geography, imaginative and otherwise, toward being copied.
Mass tourism frames Italy as something authentic through its tours and guidebooks. It is a place that escaped the industrial age, and is inhabited by people who, defying all convention, aim to live a life of leisure la dolce vita. Italy becomes a static montage of the same, ever-present touristic images, from gondolas in Venice, to the Florentine Duomo, to the colosseum in Rome, which lend themselves to being reproduced as simulacra.
Secondly, this essay takes the montage as key to re-thinking modern Italy as an imagined community. If, as Walter Benjamin asserts, the montage, as the structuring principle of historical materialism, dialectically juxtaposes images and fragments, which together reveal ur-forms of history, myth, and nature, then these Italianate simulacra perform similar functions.
They also intimate the existence of a mythical ur-form of Italy, whose history becomes visible through these simulacra. In short, we might consider these simulacra as a type of arcade for modern and postmodern Italy. Like the arcades in Paris, these Italianate simulacra provide a space where commodity phantasmagorias are displayed and consumed.
These commodities are predominantly touristic, like souvenirs and postcards. Tourists use technologies cameras and videorecorders to consume this commodified Italy, and therefore, impose their own meanings as well as their own ways of seeing upon it. If Italy is indeed a commodity readily consumed by tourists, then what do these Italianate simulacra mean for the scholarship on the Italian nation-state? I argue that these reproductions are critical to understanding the on-going construction of modern Italy as an imagined community.
In fact, the study of these simulacra may be even more important than the typical analyses of literary texts or political rhetoric insofar as this is the moment when imagined community is transformed into a commodity. It is the phenomenon of mass tourism that enables this transformation.
Of course, the transformation of Italy into a commodity can be disorienting and threatening, for both academic and tourist. One compensatory gesture is that Italy becomes linked to a logic of disappearance, or better yet, a variation of imperialist nostalgia tempered by mass tourism. While tourists may not believe in civilizing missions like colonialists once did, they utilize the same nostalgic frame when attempting to establish their innocence, even though they are complicit in the process, by pointing out what other tourists have destroyed.
On the other hand, there is also the worry that Italy will disappear on account of natural forces. These threats of disappearance, nostalgic and natural, thus impel tourists to see Italy before it is gone. Tourists also hope to see Italy before they are gone, for they are ephemeral subjects themselves, existing for but a few weeks a year. The ephemerality of tourists and the Italy they consume, may also encapsulate the disappearance of subject and object at the heart of modern aesthetics, noted by Benjamin.
As Jean Baudrillard notes, simulacra are, in fact, giant montage factories. It is simultaneously itself and yet does not resemble itself, for it has been re-inscribed as a touristic construct. Italianate simulacra in Las Vegas, Tokyo, California and beyond, exist to sustain the images of a quasi-utopian Italy a mythical ur-form? Even if Venice or Cinque Terre were to disappear because of floods of water and tourists respectively, they would, in effect, be saved by their simulacra.
These clones of Italy would carefully preserve, arrange, display, and embody images of Venice and Cinque Terre, creating a world of simulation in which reality has been short-circuited and artificially resurrected, and copy becomes indis- tinguishable from original. If, as Baudrillard asserts, images are immortal p. How that seduction occurs is, in part, the subject of this essay.
Together, they constitute the arcades of modern Italy: spaces that both represent and embody the transformation of imagined community into touristic commodity. Methodologically, this essay engages the tenets of anthropological par- ticipant-observation and ethnographic documentation to describe these simulacral reproductions of Italy. The essay concludes with additional comments on the montage as a productive space and critical framework, and imagines new ideas about Italy that emerge from these tableaux.
It comes into view piece by piece, where the Strip makes its only turn: a lamppost here, a change in the texture of the sidewalk there, a hint of turquoise water. Only when facing the resort head-on does one get a sense of its immense scale and jumble of monuments. A cerulean canal snakes between these monuments, pooling in a shallow lagoon where gondolas and gondoliers await to ferry tourists along this nouveau Grand Canal.
Other touches invoke a sense of Venice, such as striped gondola poles and shaded porticoes. Photo by the author. This is because the eye does not gravitate to one monument in particular, but is forced to trace a path among all of them.
Put another way, the Venetian forces the tourist gaze to experience its re-constructed montage. It is a site of such authentic fakery that it creates a suspension of disbelief. What is more, these signs do not stage authenticity, but rather authentic fakery.
From a replica of the Eiffel tower to an Egyptian pyramid to a medieval castle, the fake is the hallmark of the Vegas experi- ence. According to Nezar AlSayyad, any claim to the reality of history is secondary to commercial profit in Las Vegas pp. What cultural imaginary of Venice is being constructed via the built environment of the Venetian? The immediate answer, of course, would be that the Venetian invokes the city of Venice. When building the Venetian, billionaire developer Sheldon Adelson issued a mandate of authenticity, wanting to re-produce everything exactly as it was in Venice.
He hired glassblowers from Murano and other Italian artists to re-create works by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto. Despite proclamations of authenticity, just under the surface of the Venetian one finds evidence of its supreme authentic fakery.
Inside, visitors stroll along the Grand Canal, shopping and dining under an artificial and air-conditioned sky that mimics sunset and sunrise according to the time of day. One encounters carabinieri and gondoliers who do not speak Italian, but who do speak English with phony Italian accents.
In this simulacrum, all cultural knowledge about Italy need not apply. With this focus on re-producing authenticity, the Venetian, in part, attempts to make a true claim to history. On site, the Venetian sells all manner of physical souvenirs i. The casino-resort also engages the rhetoric of authenticity to assure visitors of its value while laying out its historical claims. It does so through text: its own Resort Guide and other hotel brochures.
Experience the gondolas of the Adriatic Sea and the beauty of the mastery of art displayed liberally for your pleasure pp. In that familiar narrative voice of the guidebook, the text tells the visitor how to see and consume the Venetian.
It does not distinguish between the simulacrum of Venice and the city itself. Walking among the fake canals and artificial skies of the Venetian — in this simulacrum, this new arcade, this commodified imagined community — we excavate new constellations of modern Italian history, one of which tells the story of a touristic Italy.
Yet in practice, the walking is never done freely. In this sense, the Venetian functions as a giant panopticon. This simulacrum of Venice tells us, ever so subtly through its texts and its cameras, how to move, experience, and most importantly, how to consume this Italy- as-commodity.
In another sense, this Italy stands in for a new form of prison, where discipline and punishment are now masked by the consumption of la dolce vita. Indeed, Baudrillard proclaims Disneyland to be the perfect model for all the entangled orders of simulacra p.
See also Fredric E. Gushin and William J. Eadington and Judy A. All Disney theme parks blend fantasy and history, predicated on the oversimplification and reproduction of imaginary environ- ments and coupled with the replication of particular objects to create a sense of nostalgia. True, a visitor to any Disney park is constantly reminded they are in the happiest place on earth. All Disney theme parks claim to be utopian, with the first Disneyland in Los Angeles constructed as both fantasy world and historical setting inhabited by ficti- tious characters.
The Absolute Fake admits to being a complete fake, just as Disneyland admits that within its magic kingdom, only fantasy is reproduced. However later iterations in Florida and Japan break from this formula. He intended it to be: [An] experimental city that would incorporate the best ideas of industry, government, and academia worldwide [.
It is a future of hierarchy, continued 18 Baudrillard, p. EPCOT embodies a move from ideology to simulation, short-circuiting reality and reproducing nation-states and cultures as simulacra. Since its opening, Tokyo Disneyland has emerged as the most popular tourist attraction in Japan with 18 million visitors annually, making it the busiest Disney theme park in the world. In September , a nautically inspired park, Tokyo DisneySea, opened next door.
Tokyo DisneySea is structured around cities and landscapes near the sea, and is organized around seven different ports. It aims to attract a more adult clientele, with sit-down restaurants that serve alcohol, a luxury hotel, and a notable absence of life-size cartoon characters. It is not a water park in the conventional sense; there are no waterslides, log rides, or lazy rivers.
Sociology is experiencing what can only be described as hyperdifferentiation of theories - there are now many approaches competing for attention in the intellectual arena. From this perspective, we should see a weeding out of theories to a small number, but this is not likely to occur because each of the many theoretical perspectives has a resource base of adherents. As a result, theories in sociology do not compete head on with each other as much as they coexist. This seminal reference work was brought together with an eye to capturing the diversity of theoretical activity in sociology - specifically the forefront of theory. Contributors describe what they themselves are doing right now rather than what others have done in the past. The goal of this volume is to allow prominent theorists working in a variety of traditions - who wouldn't usually come together - to review their work. The chapters in this volume represent a mix of theoretical orientations and strategies, but these these theories are diverse and represent the prominent theoretical discussions in sociology today.
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The real is produced from miniaturised units, from matrices, memory banks and command models - and with these it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times. After the ambiguity of thomas a. So the map, a simulation, becomes confused for the real terrain until it rots away. To simulate is to. Simulacra are copies that depict things that either had no original, or that no.
From medium to medium, the real is volatilized, becoming an allegory of death.
Home Numeri 73 Towards an ontology of digital ar During the Nineties, the diffusion of information and communication technologies allowed a dramatic transformation in art practices. Radically new aesthetic experiences, such as tele-presence, immersivity, responsivity, hyper-mediacy and multimediality, emerge in the framework of the digital arts and call into question not only the traditional status of the work of art but also the fundamental relation with the beholder. The aim of this paper is to define a conceptual framework for the ontology of digital arts by identifying some ontological features that are distinctive to digital idioms. Such an analysis tries to outline how aesthetic and technical innovations affect our cognitive and sensorial relationship with technological artifacts. In the first part, the relation between technogenesis and ontology, as well as the key topics of the ontology of digital arts are discussed. The second part deals with the notion of presence.
Baudrillard is one of postmodernist theorists that criticize the unreality of the culture which we live in. He suggests that human interactions with virtual reality media and unreal technologies, achieve nothing; He even fears that society will fall prey to these media subjectivity. The virtual reality media capability to produce simulated reality could mislead society into voluntary detachment with the real world. The latest development in virtual technology has made it available within the consumer market in the form of augmented reality application. An application based on a concept that merges virtual data within the physical environment, a different approach compared to common virtual reality technology where user is immersed within a virtual environment.
Simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being or a substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. The territory.Reply
Titolo originale, Simulacres et Simulation. Autore · Jean Baudrillard. 1ª ed. originale, · Genere · saggistica. Sottogenere, filosofia · Lingua originale · francese · Modifica dati su Wikidata · Manuale. Simulacri e simulazione è un trattato filosofico del di Jean Baudrillard, in cui l'autore Crea un libro · Scarica come PDF · Versione stampabile.Reply