migration and types of migration pdf

Migration and types of migration pdf

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Migration: Meaning, Types and Effects

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Human migration

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Migration 2.

Migration: Meaning, Types and Effects

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Migration 2. Types of Migration 3. Concepts 4. Migration is the third factor for changes in the population, the other being birth rate and death rate. As compared to birth rate and death rate, migration affects the size of population differently.

Migration is not a biological event like birth rate and death rate, but is influenced by the social, cultural, economic and political factors. Migration is carried by the decision of a person or group of persons. The changes occurring in the birth rate and death rate do not affect the size and structure of the population on a large scale, while migration, at any time, may cause large scale changes in the size and structure of the population.

The study of migration is of vital importance because the birth rate, death rate and migration determine the size of population, the population growth rate and thus the structure of population. In addition, migration plays an important role in determining the distribution of population and supply of labour in the country.

Thus, the study of migration is also useful for formulating economic and other policies by the government, economists, sociologists, politicians, and planners along with demographers. Migration shows the trends of social changes. From the historical viewpoint during the process of industrialisation and economic development, people migrate from farms to industries, from villages to cities, from one city to another and from one country to another.

In modern times, technological changes are taking place in Asia, Africa and Latin America due to which these regions are witnessing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Economists are interested in the study of migration because migration affects the supply of skilled and semi-skilled labourers, development of industries and commerce causing changes in the employment structure of the migrated people.

Formulation of economic policies has a close relation with the process of migration because migration affects the economic and social development of a country. Out of the many side effects of the population growth in India and other developing countries, an important effect of industrialisation and economic development is the internal migration of the population on a large scale, which has drawn the attention of planners and formulaters of economic policies.

Migration is the movement of people between regions or countries. When people leaving their place of residence go to live permanently in another area then this is called migration. Migration may be permanent or temporary with the intention of returning to the place of origin in future.

When people from one country move permanently to another country, for example, if people from India move to America then for America, it is termed as Immigration, whereas for India it is termed as Emigration. In-migration means migration occurring within an area only, while out-migration means migration out of the area. Both types of migration are called internal migration occurring within the country. Migration from Bihar to Bengal is in-migration for Bengal, while it is out- migration for Bihar.

During any time period, the total number of persons coming in the country and the total number of people going out of the country for residing is called gross migration. The difference between the total number of persons coming to reside in a country and going out of the country for residing during any time period is termed as net migration.

Internal migration means the movement of people in different states and regions within a country from one place to another. On the other hand, external or international migration refers to the movement of people from one country to another for permanent settlement.

Migration stream means the total number of people migrating from one region to another or from one country to another for residing during a time period. It is, in fact, related to the movement of people from a common area of origin to a common area of a destination. For example, migration of Indians to America during a time interval. Migration may occur continuously over a period of time. But to measure it correctly, the data should be divided into intervals of one to five or more years.

The division relating to a particular period is known as migration interval. The place which people leave is the place of origin and the person is called an out-migrant. On the other hand, the place of destination is the place where the person moves and the person is called an in-migrant.

Migrant is the labour which moves to some region or country for short periods of time, say several months or a few years. It is regarded as a secondary labour force. Internal migration affects the place where from people migrate and the place to which they migrate. When the migrants move from rural to urban areas, they have both positive and negative effects on the society and economy. When population migrates from rural areas, it reduces the pressure of population on land, the per worker output and productivity on land increases and so does per capita income.

Thus family income rises which encourages farmers to adopt better means of production thereby increasing farm produce. Those who migrate to urban areas are mostly in the age group of years. They live alone, work and earn and remit their savings to their homes at villages. Such remittances further increase rural incomes which are utilised to make improvements on farms which further raise their incomes. This particularly happens in the case of emigrants to foreign countries who remit large sums at home.

Moreover, when these migrants return to their villages occasionally, they try to raise the consumption and living standards by bringing new ideas and goods to their homes. Modern household gadgets and other products like TV, fridge, motor cycles, etc.

Further, with the migration of working age persons to urban areas the number of farm workers is reduced. This leads to employment of underemployed family members on the farm such as women, older persons and even juveniles. Further, out-migration widens inequalities of income and wealth in rural area families which receive large remittances and their incomes rise. They make improvements on their farms which raise productivity and production.

These further increase their incomes. Some even buy other farm lands. Thus such families become richer as compared to others, thereby widening inequalities. Migration reduces population growth in rural areas. Separation from wives for long periods and the use of contraceptives help control population growth. When very young males migrate to urban areas, they are so influenced by the urban life that they do not like to marry at an early age.

Their aim is to earn more, settle in any vocation or job and then marry. Living in urban areas makes the migrants health conscious. Consequently, they emphasise on the importance of health care, and cleanliness which reduces fertility and mortality rates. Migration also affects the social set-up of rural communities. It weakens the joint family system if the migrants settle permanently in urban areas.

With intermingling of the migrants with people of different castes and regions in cities, they bring new values and attitudes which gradually change old values and customs of ruralites. Migration increases the population of the working class in urban areas. But the majority of migrants are young men between the ages of 15 to 24 years who are unwed.

Others above this age group come alone leaving their families at home. This tendency keeps fertility at a lower level than in rural areas. Even those who settle permanently with their spouses favour small number of children due to high costs of rearing them. The other factor responsible for low fertility rate is the availability of better medical and family planning facilities in urban areas. The effects of migration on income and employment in urban areas are varied depending upon the type of migrants.

Usually the migrants are unskilled and find jobs of street hawkers, shoeshine boys, carpenters, masons, tailors, rickshaw pullers, cooks and other tradesmen, etc. But, according to the ILO, the evidence suggests that the bulk of employment in the informal sector is economically efficient and profit-making.

Thus such migrants earn enough to spend and remit to their homes. Other migrants who are educated up to the secondary level find jobs as shophelpers, assistants, taxi drivers, repairing machines and consumer durables, marketing goods and in other informal activities that are small in scale, labour intensive and unregulated.

Their earnings are sufficient to bring them in the category of a common urbanite with an income level higher than the unskilled workers. Another class of migrants that is very small is of those who come for higher education in colleges and institutes to towns.

These are the persons who remit large sums to their homes and help in modernising the rural scenario. Migration from rural to urban areas has a number of adverse effects. Towns and cities in which the migrants settle, face innumerable problems. There is the prolific growth of huge slums and shantytowns. These settlements and huge neighbourhoods have no access to municipal services such as clean and running water, public services, electricity, and sewage system.

There is acute housing shortage. The city transport system is unable the meet the demand of the growing population. There are air and noise pollutions, and increased crime and congestion. The costs of providing facilities are too high to be met, despite the best intentions of the local bodies. Besides, there is massive underemployment and unemployment in towns and cities. Men and women are found selling bananas, groundnuts, balloons and other cheap products on pavements and in streets.

Many work as shoeshines, parking helpers, porters, etc. Thus, urban migration increases the growth rate of job seekers relative to its population growth, thereby raising urban supply of labour.

On the demand side, there are no enough jobs available for the ruralities in the formal urban sector for the uneducated and unskilled rural migrants. Consequently, this rapid increase in labour supply and the lack of demand for such labour lead to chronic and increasing urban unemployment and underemployment.

Sociology , Demography , Migration. Drop files here or. Unequal Distribution of Population: 12 Reasons. Measuring Birth Rate: Top 10 Methods. Upload Your Knowledge on Sociology:. Upload Now.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In the three decades since the main period of independence in Africa, population distribution and redistribution through migration have remained important and widely recognized features of the population dynamics of the continent. John O. Oucho is an associate professor of demography and director of the Population Studies and Research Institute in Nairobi, Kenya. William T.

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The relatively permanent movement of people across territorial boundaries is referred to as inmigration and out-migration, or immigration and emigration when the boundaries crossed are international. The place of in-migration or immigration is called the receiver population, and the place of out-migration or emigration is called the sender population. There are two basic types of migration studied by demographers:. Jay Weinstein and Vijayan Pillai denote a third classification: forced migration. Forced migration exists when a person is moved against their will slaves , or when the move is initiated because of external factors natural disaster or civil war. The distinction between internal and international migration is crucial because they happen for different reasons. Because structural barriers are more likely to impede the mobility of a potential international migrant than an internal migrant—international migration involves more administrative procedures, greater expense, and more difficulties associated with obtaining employment, accessing state services, learning a new language, and the like—the motivations behind international migration are usually stronger than those behind internal migration Weeks


MIGRATION. Types, Causes and. Consequences. Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai. Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small village of district​.


Human migration

A refugee family crosses the Moei River into Thailand. They carry their belongings. Build background about human migration and types of migration. Explain to students that human migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another. Ask: What are some different types of human movements?

Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location geographic region. The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration within a single country is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form of human migration globally. Age is also important for both work and non-work migration. Persons moving from their home due to forced displacement such as a natural disaster or civil disturbance may be described as displaced persons or, if remaining in the home country, internally-displaced persons. A person who seeks refuge in another country can, if the reason for leaving the home country is political, religious, or another form of persecution, make a formal application to that country where refuge is sought and is then usually described [ by whom?

The demands for migration data arising from the Agenda for Sustainable Development have prompted the international statistical community to review the use of traditional sources for migration data, such as population and housing censuses, household surveys and administrative records. There is also increased interest in looking for alternative sources to enhance the collection and analysis of migration data. Information about migration comes from a variety of data sources that have strengths and limitations and can be used to produce different migration statistics.

2 comments

  • Verrill V. 27.04.2021 at 04:44

    External Migration: Moving to a new home in a different state, country, or continent. Emigration: Leaving one country to move to another (e.g., the Pilgrims​.

    Reply
  • Daisi D. M. 27.04.2021 at 14:10

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