File Name: capitalism and underdevelopment in latin america .zip
Historical Studies of Chile and Brazil. Hispanic American Historical Review 1 August ; 48 3 : — Frank wholly rejects this conception in favor of another.
By Andre Gunder Frank. New York: Monthly Review Press. Most users should sign in with their email address.
This article examines dependency theory, focusing especially on Latin America. Dependency theory includes different currents of thought stemming from analysis of extensive findings from literature, conferences, and discussions. Although it is of global dimensions, it has achieved greater impact in Latin America. In this context, new nation-states emerged in the wake of many years of colonial or semi-colonial status. They included China, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Movements of national liberation in Asia and Africa; the emergence of new economies and polities influenced by colonialism and neocolonialism; criticisms arising from trends of thoughts in international organizations such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD , the Non-Aligned Movement, the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO , and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ECLAC ; and the aspirations for political and economic independence in Latin America achieved, in part, by implementing import substitution industrialization policies are expressions of a new reality that set in the wider context of the Cold War. In the social sciences, this reality is reflected in the appearance of topics under the term development theory , in which concepts such as economic backwardness, underdevelopment, modernization, and dependency are treated.
The writer points out weaknesses in each theory to explain the reasons for cases for Third World underdevelopment. Artikel ini cuba mengupas beberapa teori pembangunan yang telah dimajukan untuk menghuraikan sebab berlakunya kurang pembangunan di Dunia Ketiga. Antara teori yang telah diberikan perhatian ialah teori modenisasi dan pertumbuhan ekonomi, teori strukturalis, teori pergantungan dan kurang pembangunan serta teori mod pengeluaran dan artikulasi. Penulis telah menunjukkan kelemahan setiap teori ini dalam menghuraikan sebab berlakunya kurang pembangunan di Dunia Ketiga. Bernstein, H.
Historical Studies of Chile and Brazil. Hispanic American Historical Review 1 August ; 48 3 : — Frank wholly rejects this conception in favor of another. He believes that the Latin American countries are and always have been functioning parts of the European-centered system of world capitalist trade. In support of this thesis, Frank presents historical and institutional analyses of the Chilean and Brazilian economies. Although the evidence is not systematically presented and is obviously being marshalled for what is at times a quasi-polemical debate, it is extensive and varied. The reader may well come to concede the point.
The four essays in this book offer a sweeping reinterpretation of Latin American history as an aspect of the world-wide spread of capitalism in its commercial and industrial phases. Frank lays to rest the myth of Latin American feudalism, demonstrating in the process the impossibility of a bourgeois revolution in a part of the world which is already part and parcel of the capitalist system. One particular feature of capitalist underdevelopment receives special emphasis in each essay. The essay on Chile stresses the loss and misappropriation of economic surplus. The phenomenon of uneven regional development receives more detailed analysis in the study on Brazil. Finally, the monopolistic structure of capitalism is the theme of the last study on Brazilian agriculture.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states , enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the " world system ". This theory was officially developed in the late s following World War II, as scholars searched for the root issue in the lack of development in Latin America. The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory , an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today's underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today's developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment , technology transfers , and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy. Some writers have argued for its continuing relevance as a conceptual orientation to the global division of wealth. Liberal reformists typically advocate for targeted policy interventions, while the neo-Marxists believe in a command-centered economy.
The relationship between shifts in the world market and ideas on economic development in Latin America contrasted sharply with that in Romania before the First World War. In the latter country, market failure, social upheaval, and access to the continuing Russian debate led to new theoretical responses, in both Marxist and non-Marxist discourses; in Latin America, the perceived success of the export-driven economies, combined with institutional factors and the absence or feebleness of certain critical traditions known in Romania, resulted in a prolonged inability to mount a theoretical attack on the "outward-directed development" prescribed by the Ricardian thesis of comparative advantage. Thus in Latin America, with which this essay is principally concerned, both Marxist and non-Marxist challenges to the region's place in the international division of labor were relatively ineffective before the War's end. The larger part of the paper deals with intellectuals and their ideas, and includes explicit comparisons with Romania, the eastern European country with some important similarities to, and instructive differences from, Latin America; it was also the one whose intellectual traditions had a direct impact on Latin America, through the works of Mihail Manoilescu.
The following studies were written at different times, in several countries, and for varying purposes and media. The short essay on the "Indian Problem" in Latin America contends that the basis of this problem is the extension of the capitalist expropriation of italist. The persistence of these underdevelopment-generating contradictions of capitalism throughout the history of capitalist development emerges from It. The concern with history is designed to show how historical capitalist development in Chile generated and explains the underdevelopment of that country. Capitalism began to penetrate, to form, indeed fully to characterize Latin American and Chilean society as early as the sixteenth-century conquest.
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Richard Graham; Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical Studies of Chile and Brazil. By Andre Gunder Frank. (New York: Monthly.Reply