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Computer science is the study of algorithmic processes , computational machines and computation itself. Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines.
For example, the theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them, while computer graphics or computational geometry emphasize more specific applications. Algorithms and data structures have been called the heart of computer science. Computer architecture describes construction of computer components and computer-operated equipment. Artificial intelligence aims to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, planning and learning found in humans and animals.
A digital computer is capable of simulating various information processes. The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer sciences. The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.
Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in In , Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry [note 1] when he invented his simplified arithmometer , the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.
Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator , his Difference Engine , in , which eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator , his Analytical Engine. Following Babbage, although unaware of his earlier work, Percy Ludgate in published  the 2nd of the only two designs for mechanical analytical engines in history.
When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". During the s, with the development of new and more powerful computing machines such as the Atanasoff—Berry computer and ENIAC , the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.
The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world. The first computer science department in the United States was formed at Purdue University in Although first proposed in ,  the term "computer science" appears in a article in Communications of the ACM ,  in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in ,  justifying the name by arguing that, like management science , the subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline.
Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy ,  to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in , with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries.
An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is data science ; this is now used for a multi-disciplinary field of data analysis, including statistics and databases. In the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM — turingineer , turologist , flow-charts-man , applied meta-mathematician , and applied epistemologist.
A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by— Edsger Dijkstra , states that "computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes. For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineering , while the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems.
However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive science , linguistics , mathematics , physics , biology , Earth science , statistics , and logic. Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science.
The relationship between Computer Science and Software Engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term "Software Engineering" means, and how computer science is defined. The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department is formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis.
Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research. A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics. Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoning , the "technocratic paradigm" which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering , and the "scientific paradigm" which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciences , identifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence.
As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human—computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science.
Theoretical Computer Science is mathematical and abstract in spirit, but it derives its motivation from the practical and everyday computation. Its aim is to understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies.
According to Peter Denning , the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be automated? In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation.
The second question is addressed by computational complexity theory , which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems. Information theory, closely related to probability and statistics , is related to the quantification of information.
This was developed by Claude Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Codes are used for data compression , cryptography , error detection and correction , and more recently also for network coding.
Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods. Data structures and algorithms are the studies of commonly used computational methods and their computational efficiency.
Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics , software engineering, and linguistics.
It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals. Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specification , development and verification of software and hardware systems. They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing. For industrial use, tool support is required.
However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems , where safety or security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic calculi, formal languages , automata theory , and program semantics , but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification.
Artificial intelligence AI aims to or is required to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning, and communication found in humans and animals. From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference , artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics , symbolic logic , semiotics , electrical engineering , philosophy of mind , neurophysiology , and social intelligence.
AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic development , but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development , which require computational understanding.
The starting point in the late s was Alan Turing 's question "Can computers think? But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data. Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system.
It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. Johnson and Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. Computers within that distributed system have their own private memory, and information can be exchanged to achieve common goals.
Computer security is a branch of computer technology with the objective of protecting information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users.
Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding encryption and therefore deciphering decryption information. Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity.
A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search data, through database models and query languages.
Data mining is a process of discovering patterns in large data sets. Computer graphics is the study of digital visual contents and involves the synthesis and manipulation of image data. The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer vision , image processing , and computational geometry , and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games.
Information can take the form of images, sound, video or other multimedia. Bits of information can be streamed via signals. Its processing is the central notion of informatics , the European view on computing , which studies information processing algorithms independently of the type of information carrier - whether it is electrical, mechanical or biological. This field plays important role in information theory , telecommunications , information engineering and has applications in medical image computing and speech synthesis , among others.
What is the lower bound on the complexity of fast Fourier transform algorithms? Scientific computing or computational science is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems. A major usage of scientific computing is simulation of various processes, including computational fluid dynamics , physical, electrical, and electronic systems and circuits, as well as societies and social situations notably war games along with their habitats, among many others.
Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft. Notable in electrical and electronic circuit design are SPICE,  as well as software for physical realization of new or modified designs. The latter includes essential design software for integrated circuits.
Social computing is an area that is concerned with the intersection of social behavior and computational systems. Human-computer interaction research develops theories, principles, and guidelines for user interface designers. Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying the software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software.
Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn't just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal arrangement and maintenance. For example software testing , systems engineering , technical debt and software development processes.
Programming languages can be used to accomplish different tasks in different ways. Common programming paradigms include:. Many languages offer support for multiple paradigms, making the distinction more a matter of style than of technical capabilities.
Conferences are important events for computer science research. During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet.
Stanford University. Any conflicts with the final exam time are handled by the registrar's office. Professor Stefano Ermon and his TAs were able to teach complex mathematical. Currently his research interests are centered on learning from and through interactions and span the areas of data mining, social network analysis, and reinforcement learning. Online assessments are a critical part of eLearning and should be undertaken with the same level of care and rigor that you put into creating your learning content.
API Application Programming Interface is a computing interface which enables communication and data exchange between two separate software systems. API defines requests that can be made, how to make requests, data formats that can be used, etc. What is API Testing? The purpose of API Testing is to check the functionality, reliability, performance, and security of the programming interfaces. In API Testing, instead of using standard user inputs keyboard and outputs, you use software to send calls to the API, get output, and note down the system's response. It mainly concentrates on the business logic layer of the software architecture.
See product details. This updated and reorganized fourth edition of Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach applies the strong mathematics content of previous editions to a coherent treatment of Model-Based Testing for both code-based structural and specification-based functional testing. Software testing and quality assurance can be looked at from three points of view: 1 our tools and techniques, 2 what we are testing, 3 and the process by which testing is done and quality is assured. Software Testing Software Testing Books.
Psychology plays an important role in the design of techniques for usability testing. We have dealt with some of the most basic concepts in software testing. In general there does not exist any algorithm to construct such a test set. However.
Computer science is the study of algorithmic processes , computational machines and computation itself. Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines. For example, the theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them, while computer graphics or computational geometry emphasize more specific applications. Algorithms and data structures have been called the heart of computer science.
Explore a preview version of Foundations of Software Testing, 2nd Edition right now. It may surprise you to learn that Microsoft employs as many software testers as developers. Less …. This is the second edition of the best selling Python book in the world. Python Crash ….
Software design is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact intended to accomplish goals , using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints. Software design usually involves problem-solving and planning a software solution. This includes both a low-level component and algorithm design and a high-level, architecture design.
These notes will look at. Sorting and searching: algorithms and lower bound. This class has two major thrusts which complement each other nicely: increasing the mathematical sophistication proofs and logic and introducing the mathematical foundation of computer science.
Computer science is the study of algorithms for processing information with computers, and the goal of each of the languages developed by computer scientists is to provide a means. Furthermore, MATLAB is a modern programming language environment: it has sophisticated data structures, contains built-ineditingand debugging tools, andsupports object-oriented programming. MATLAB project help includes not only programming but it is also an implementation applied math to the fields where computer calculations are difficult. Table o contents. A short summary of this paper. Variables C.
Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding failures,  : 31 and verifying that the software product is fit for use. Software testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest.