File Name: dictionary of urban and regional planning .zip
It is used to refer to a core of population with regard to his links with other spaces of the periphery, or to a part of that, to explain the degree of vicinity that has regarding others. It is one of the essential factors for the location of economic activities.
A city is a large human settlement. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organisations and businesses , sometimes benefiting different parties in the process, such as improving efficiency of goods and service distribution. This concentration also can have significant negative consequences, such as forming urban heat islands , concentrating pollution , and stressing water supplies and other resources.
Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization , more than half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. However, in a world of intensifying globalisation , all cities are to varying degrees also connected globally beyond these regions. This increased influence means that cities also have significant influences on global issues, such as sustainable development , global warming and global health.
Because of these major influences on global issues, the international community has prioritized investment in sustainable cities through Sustainable Development Goal Other important traits of cities besides population include the capital status and relative continued occupation of the city.
Religious holy sites offer another example of capital status within a religion, Jerusalem , Mecca , Varanasi , Ayodhya , Haridwar and Prayagraj each hold significance. The cities of Faiyum , Damascus , Delhi and Argos are among those laying claim to the longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its relatively great size, but also by its functions and its special symbolic status , which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can also refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, and can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory.
National censuses use a variety of definitions - invoking factors such as population , population density , number of dwellings , economic function, and infrastructure - to classify populations as urban. Typical working definitions for small-city populations start at around , people. Historically, the qualifying factor was the presence of a cathedral , resulting in some very small cities such as Wells , with a population 12, as of [update] and St Davids , with a population of 1, as of [update].
According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but also by the role it plays within a larger political context. Cities serve as administrative, commercial, religious, and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas.
The presence of a literate elite is sometimes included [ by whom? This arrangement contrasts with the more typically horizontal relationships in a tribe or village accomplishing common goals through informal agreements between neighbors, or through leadership of a chief.
The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work systems such as canal-building, food-distribution, land-ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations. The word "city" and the related " civilization " come from the Latin root civitas , originally meaning citizenship or community member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs , meaning "city" in a more physical sense.
Urban geography deals both with cities in their larger context and with their internal structure. Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological, economic, and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, and despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river.
Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. The vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic, political, and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos or if fortified as a citadel.
Cities typically have public spaces where anyone can go. These include privately owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure generally follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, radial, concentric, rectilinear, and curvilinear.
Physical environment generally constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on terraces and winding roads. It may be adapted to its means of subsistence e.
And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. In a radial structure, main roads converge on a central point.
This form could evolve from successive growth over a long time, with concentric traces of town walls and citadels marking older city boundaries. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by ring roads moving traffic around the outskirts of a town. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and Haarlem are structured as a central square surrounded by concentric canals marking every expansion. In cities such as Moscow , this pattern is still clearly visible.
A system of rectilinear city streets and land plots, known as the grid plan , has been used for millennia in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The Indus Valley Civilisation built Mohenjo-Daro , Harappa and other cities on a grid pattern, using ancient principles described by Kautilya , and aligned with the compass points.
Urban-type settlement extends far beyond the traditional boundaries of the city proper  in a form of development sometimes described critically as urban sprawl. Metropolitan areas include suburbs and exurbs organized around the needs of commuters , and sometimes edge cities characterized by a degree of economic and political independence.
In the US these are grouped into metropolitan statistical areas for purposes of demography and marketing. Some cities are now part of a continuous urban landscape called urban agglomeration , conurbation , or megalopolis exemplified by the BosWash corridor of the Northeastern United States.
Cities, characterized by population density , symbolic function, and urban planning , have existed for thousands of years. In the fourth and third millennium BC , complex civilizations flourished in the river valleys of Mesopotamia , India , China , and Egypt. Some had large, dense populations , but others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations.
Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan , existing from about BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50, or more and a sophisticated sanitation system.
These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes. In Mesopotamia, the civilization of Sumer , followed by Assyria and Babylon , gave rise to numerous cities, governed by kings and fostering multiple languages written in cuneiform. In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece developed the polis , an association of male landowning citizens who collectively constituted the city.
Under the authority of its empire , Rome transformed and founded many cities coloniae , and with them brought its principles of urban architecture, design, and society. In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica.
In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization , Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari , Chimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Later cultures such as the Aztec , Andean civilization , Mayan , Mississippians , and Pueblo peoples drew on these earlier urban traditions.
Many of their ancient cities continue to be inhabited, including major metropolitan cities such as Mexico City , in the same location as Tenochtitlan ; while ancient continuously inhabited Pueblos are near modern urban areas in New Mexico , such as Acoma Pueblo near the Albuquerque metropolitan area and Taos Pueblo near Taos ; while others like Lima are located nearby ancient Peruvian sites such as Pachacamac.
In the first millennium AD, Angkor in the Khmer Empire grew into one of the most extensive cities in the world   and may have supported up to one million people. In the remnants of the Roman Empire , cities of late antiquity gained independence but soon lost population and importance.
In the Holy Roman Empire , beginning in the 12th. By , these cities, as far as still part of the empire, became part of the Imperial Estates governing the empire with the emperor through the Imperial Diet. By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, some cities become powerful states, taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. In Italy medieval communes developed into city-states including the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa.
Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch commercial cities of Ghent , Ypres , and Amsterdam. In the West, nation-states became the dominant unit of political organization following the Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth century.
However, most towns remained small. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws regarding administration, finances and urbanism. The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.
England led the way as London became the capital of a world empire and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for manufacturing. Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health problems resulting from overcrowding , occupational hazards of industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitation , and communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera.
Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape. In the second half of the twentieth century, deindustrialization or " economic restructuring " in the West led to poverty , homelessness , and urban decay in formerly prosperous cities. America's "Steel Belt" became a " Rust Belt " and cities such as Detroit , Michigan, and Gary, Indiana began to shrink , contrary to the global trend of massive urban expansion.
Amidst these economic changes, high technology and instantaneous telecommunication enable select cities to become centers of the knowledge economy. Urbanization is the process of migration from rural into urban areas, driven by various political, economic, and cultural factors. Until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the rural agricultural population and towns featuring markets and small-scale manufacturing.
Urbanization rapidly spread across the Europe and the Americas and since the s has taken hold in Asia and Africa as well. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs , reported in that for the first time more than half of the world population lives in cities. Latin America is the most urban continent, with four fifths of its population living in cities, including one fifth of the population said to live in shantytowns favelas , poblaciones callampas , etc.
Asia is home to by far the greatest absolute number of city-dwellers: over two billion and counting. Megacities , cities with population in the multi-millions, have proliferated into the dozens, arising especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Cities around the world have expanded physically as they grow in population, with increases in their surface extent, with the creation of high-rise buildings for residential and commercial use, and with development underground. Urbanization can create rapid demand for water resources management , as formerly good sources of freshwater become overused and polluted, and the volume of sewage begins to exceed manageable levels.
Local government of cities takes different forms including prominently the municipality especially in England , in the United States , in India , and in other British colonies ; legally, the municipal corporation ;  municipio in Spain and in Portugal , and, along with municipalidad , in most former parts of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and the commune in France and in Chile ; or comune in Italy. The chief official of the city has the title of mayor.
Whatever their true degree of political authority, the mayor typically acts as the figurehead or personification of their city. This hierarchy of law is not enforced rigidly in practice—for example in conflicts between municipal regulations and national principles such as constitutional rights and property rights. Technologies, techniques, and laws governing these areas—developed in cities—have become ubiquitous in many areas.
Cities typically provide municipal services such as education , through school systems ; policing , through police departments; and firefighting , through fire departments ; as well as the city's basic infrastructure. These are provided more or less routinely, in a more or less equal fashion. The traditional basis for municipal finance is local property tax levied on real estate within the city.
Local government can also collect revenue for services, or by leasing land that it owns. This situation has become acute in deindustrialized cities and in cases where businesses and wealthier citizens have moved outside of city limits and therefore beyond the reach of taxation.
At that time, we felt that the nature of research in urban morphology was developing rapidly, as were contacts with like-minded scholars in several countries. The volume of published research was increasing. It was becoming evident that a lack of knowledge of the terminology used in different countries was an increasing obstacle to understanding what was being published. As Ivor Samuels wrote in ,. Choay and Merlin
National and regional planning, and planning for cities and city regions, in the UK from to The reference in the dictionary gives one clue to the confusion.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Thakur , R. This book discusses urban planning and regional development practices in the twentieth century, and ways in which they are currently being transformed.
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